Daniel Valia, Brecht Ingelbeen, Bérenger Kaboré, Ibrahima Karama, Marjan Peeters, Palpouguini Lompo, Erika Vlieghe, Annelies Post, Janneke Cox, Quirijn De Mast, Annie Robert, Marianne A B Van Der Sande, Hector Rodriguez Villalobos, Andre Van Der Ven, Halidou Tinto, Jan Jacobs
In: Antimicrob Resist Infect Control, vol. 11, iss. 1, pp. 59, 2022, ISSN: 2047-2994.
(Tags: )| | | |
BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing. To control AMR, WHO recommends monitoring antibiotic use, in particular Watch antibiotics. These are critically important antibiotics, with restricted use because at risk of becoming ineffective due to increasing AMR. We investigated pre-hospital antibiotic use in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: During 2016-2017, we collected data from patients aged > 3 months presenting with severe acute fever to the rural hospital of Nanoro Health District, Burkina Faso, including antibiotic use in the two weeks prior to consultation or hospitalization. We analysed reported antibiotic use by applying the WHO Access, Watch, Reserve classification. RESULTS: Of 920 febrile participants (63.0% ≤ 14 years), pre-hospital antibiotic use was reported by 363 (39.5%). Among these 363, microbiological diagnoses were available for 275 (75.8%) patients, of whom 162 (58.9%) were non-bacterial infections. Use of more than one antibiotic was reported by 58/363 (16.0%) participants. Of 491 self-referred patients who did not previously visit a primary health care center, 131 (26.7%) reported antibiotic use. Of 424 antibiotics reported, 265 (62.5%) were Access and 159 (37.5%) Watch antibiotics. Watch antibiotic use was more frequent among patients > 14 year olds (51.1%) compared to those 0-14 year old (30.7%, p < 0.001) and among referrals from the primary health care centers (42.2%) compared to self-referred patients (28.1%, p = 0.004). Most frequently reported Watch antibiotics were ceftriaxone (114, 71.7%) and ciprofloxacin (32, 20.1%). CONCLUSION: The reported frequent use of Watch group antibiotics among febrile patients prior to presentation to the hospital in rural Burkina Faso highlights the need to develop targeted interventions to improve antibiotic use in community settings as part of strengthening antibiotic stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. This should include facilitating referral, access to qualified prescribers and diagnostic tools in rural primary health care centers. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02669823. Registration date was February 1, 2016.
WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network Falciparum Haematology Study Group
In: BMC medicine, vol. 20, iss. 1, no. 1, pp. 85, 2022, ISSN: 1741-7015.
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with anaemia-related morbidity, attributable to host, parasite and drug factors. We quantified the haematological response following treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria to identify the factors associated with malarial anaemia. METHODS: Individual patient data from eligible antimalarial efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, available through the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network data repository prior to August 2015, were pooled using standardised methodology. The haematological response over time was quantified using a multivariable linear mixed effects model with nonlinear terms for time, and the model was then used to estimate the mean haemoglobin at day of nadir and day 7. Multivariable logistic regression quantified risk factors for moderately severe anaemia (haemoglobin < 7 g/dL) at day 0, day 3 and day 7 as well as a fractional fall ≥ 25% at day 3 and day 7. RESULTS: A total of 70,226 patients, recruited into 200 studies between 1991 and 2013, were included in the analysis: 50,859 (72.4%) enrolled in Africa, 18,451 (26.3%) in Asia and 916 (1.3%) in South America. The median haemoglobin concentration at presentation was 9.9 g/dL (range 5.0-19.7 g/dL) in Africa, 11.6 g/dL (range 5.0-20.0 g/dL) in Asia and 12.3 g/dL (range 6.9-17.9 g/dL) in South America. Moderately severe anaemia (Hb < 7g/dl) was present in 8.4% (4284/50,859) of patients from Africa, 3.3% (606/18,451) from Asia and 0.1% (1/916) from South America. The nadir haemoglobin occurred on day 2 post treatment with a mean fall from baseline of 0.57 g/dL in Africa and 1.13 g/dL in Asia. Independent risk factors for moderately severe anaemia on day 7, in both Africa and Asia, included moderately severe anaemia at baseline (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 16.10 and AOR = 23.00, respectively), young age (age < 1 compared to ≥ 12 years AOR = 12.81 and AOR = 6.79, respectively), high parasitaemia (AOR = 1.78 and AOR = 1.58, respectively) and delayed parasite clearance (AOR = 2.44 and AOR = 2.59, respectively). In Asia, patients treated with an artemisinin-based regimen were at significantly greater risk of moderately severe anaemia on day 7 compared to those treated with a non-artemisinin-based regimen (AOR = 2.06 [95%CI 1.39-3.05], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, the nadir haemoglobin occurs 2 days after starting treatment. Although artemisinin-based treatments increase the rate of parasite clearance, in Asia they are associated with a greater risk of anaemia during recovery.
Tzu-Yang Chen, Tsung-Rong Kuo, Sibidou Yougbaré, Lu-Yin Lin, Cheng-Yu Xiao
In: Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 608, iss. Pt 1, pp. 493-503, 2022.
Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF67) derivatives are considered as promising active materials for energy storage owing to the possible formation of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite. Cobalt oxide has multiple redox states for generating redox reactions for charge storage, while N-doped graphite can provide high electrical conductivity for charge transfer. In this study, it is the first time to synthesize binder-free electrodes composed of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite derived from ZIF67 on carbon cloth (CC) for supercapacitor (SC). Successive oxidation and carbonization along with additional coverage of ZIF67 derivatives are applied to synthesize ZIF67 derivatives composed of cobalt oxide, N-doped graphite and cobalt oxide/N-doped graphite composites with different layer compositions. The highest specific capacitance (C(F)) of 90.0F/g at 20 mV/s is obtained for the oxidized ZIF67/carbonized ZIF67/carbon cloth (O67/C67/CC) electrode, due to the large surface area and high electrical conductivity benefitted from preferable morphology and growing sequence of Co(3)O(4) and N-doped graphite. The symmetric SC composed of O67/C67/CC electrodes shows the maximum energy density of 2.53 Wh/kg at the power density of 50 W/kg. Cycling stability with C(F) retention of 70% and Coulombic efficiency of 65% after 6000 times repeatedly charge/discharge process is also obtained for this symmetric SC.
Chen-Yi Huang, Tsung-Rong Kuo, Sibidou Yougbaré, Lu-Yin Lin
In: Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 607, iss. Pt 2, pp. 1457-1465, 2022.
Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) is one of the promising cathode materials of lithium ion battery (LIB), but poor electrical conductivity restricts its electrochemical performance. Carbon coating can improve electrical conductivity of LFP without changing its intrinsic property. Uniform coating of carbon on LFP is significant to avoid charge congregation and unpreferable redox reactions. It is the first time to apply the commercial organic binder, Super P® (SP), as carbon source to achieve uniform coating on LFP as cathode material of LIB. The simple and economical mechanofusion method is firstly applied to coat different amounts of SP on LFP. The LIB with the cathode material of optimized SP-coated LFP shows the highest capacity of 165.6 mAh/g at 0.1C and 59.8 mAh/g at 10C, indicating its high capacity and excellent high-rate charge/discharge capability. SP is applied on other commercial LFP materials, M121 and M23, for carbon coating. Enhanced high-rate charge/discharge capabilities are also achieved for LIB with SP-coated M121 and M23 as cathode materials. This new material and technique for carbon coating is verified to be applicable on different LFP materials. This novel carbon coating method is expected to apply on other cathode materials of LIB with outstanding electrochemical performances.
Fiona B. Tamburini, Dylan Maghini, Ovokeraye H. Oduaran, Ryan Brewster, Michaella R. Hulley, Venesa Sahibdeen, Shane A. Norris, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn, Ryan G. Wagner, Alisha N. Wade, Floidy Wafawanaka, F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Rhian Twine, Zané Lombard, Scott Hazelhurst, Ami S. Bhatt
In: Nature communications, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 926, 2022.
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Human gut microbiome research focuses on populations living in high-income countries and to a lesser extent, non-urban agriculturalist and hunter-gatherer societies. The scarcity of research between these extremes limits our understanding of how the gut microbiota relates to health and disease in the majority of the world’s population. Here, we evaluate gut microbiome composition in transitioning South African populations using short- and long-read sequencing. We analyze stool from adult females living in rural Bushbuckridge (n = 118) or urban Soweto (n = 51) and find that these microbiomes are taxonomically intermediate between those of individuals living in high-income countries and traditional communities. We demonstrate that reference collections are incomplete for characterizing microbiomes of individuals living outside high-income countries, yielding artificially low beta diversity measurements, and generate complete genomes of undescribed taxa, including Treponema, Lentisphaerae, and Succinatimonas. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome of South Africans does not conform to a simple "western-nonwestern" axis and contains undescribed microbial diversity.
Toussaint Rouamba, Esperance Ouédraogo, Houreratou Barry, Nobila Valentin Yaméogo, Apoline Sondo, Rainatou Boly, Jacques Zoungrana, Abdoul Risgou Ouédraogo, Marc Christian Tahita, Armel Poda, Arnaud Eric Diendéré, Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo, Innocent Valea, Isidore Traoré, Zekiba Tarnagda, Maxime K. Drabo, Halidou Tinto
Assessment of Recovery Time, Worsening and Death, among COVID-19 inpatients and outpatients, under treatment with Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine plus Azithromycin Combination in Burkina Faso. (Journal Article)
In: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2022.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the statistical relationship between the use of chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (CQ/HCQ+AZ) and virological recovery, disease worsening and death among out- and inpatients with COVID-19 in Burkina Faso. DESIGNS: This was a retrospective observational study that compared outcomes in terms of time to recovery, worsening, and death in patients who received CQ/HCQ+AZ and those who did not, using a multivariable Cox or Poisson model before and after propensity matching. RESULTS: Of the 863 patients included in the study, about 50% (432/863) were home-based follow-up patients and 50% were inpatients. Of these, 83.3% (746/863) received at least one dose of CQ/HCQ+AZ and 13.7% (118/863) did not. There were no significant differences in associated time to recovery for patients receiving any CQ/HCQ+AZ (adj. HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 0.76 – 2.71]). Similarly, there was no significant association between CQ/HCQ+AZ use and worsening (adj. IRR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.50 – 1.50]). However, compared with the untreated group, the treated group had a lower risk of death (adj. HR, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.10 – 0.44). CONCLUSION: The study provided valuable additional information on the use of CQ/HCQ in patients with COVID-19 and did not show any harmful outcomes of CQ/HCQ + AZ treatment.
Palwende Romuald Boua, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Ananyo Choudhury, Hermann Sorgho, Engelbert A. Nonterah, Godfred Agongo, Gershim Asiki, Lisa Micklesfield, Solomon Choma, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Scott Hazelhurst, Halidou Tinto, Nigel J. Crowther, Christopher G. Mathew, Michèle Ramsay
In: Nature communications, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 855, 2022.
(Tags: Adult, Africa South of the Sahara, Atherosclerosis/*genetics/*pathology, Autoantigens/genetics, Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness/*statistics & numerical data, Endocrine-Gland-Derived/genetics, Female, Gastrointestinal Hormones/genetics, Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics, Genome/genetics, Histones/genetics, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Polymorphism, Ribonucleoproteins/genetics, Sex Factors, Single Nucleotide/genetics, Sorting Nexins/genetics, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)| | | |
Atherosclerosis precedes the onset of clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We used carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) to investigate genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis in 7894 unrelated adults (3963 women, 3931 men; 40 to 60 years) resident in four sub-Saharan African countries. cIMT was measured by ultrasound and genotyping was performed on the H3Africa SNP Array. Two new African-specific genome-wide significant loci for mean-max cIMT, SIRPA (p = 4.7E-08), and FBXL17 (p = 2.5E-08), were identified. Sex-stratified analysis revealed associations with one male-specific locus, SNX29 (p = 6.3E-09), and two female-specific loci, LARP6 (p = 2.4E-09) and PROK1 (p = 1.0E-08). We replicate previous cIMT associations with different lead SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs primarily identified in European populations. Our study find significant enrichment for genes involved in oestrogen response from female-specific signals. The genes identified show biological relevance to atherosclerosis and/or CVDs, sex-differences and transferability of signals from non-African studies.
Jane Grant, Issaka Sagara, Issaka Zongo, Matthew Cairns, Rakiswendé Serge Yerbanga, Modibo Diarra, Charles Zoungrana, Djibrilla Issiaka, Frédéric Nikièma, Frédéric Sompougdou, Amadou Tapily, Mahamadou Kaya, Alassane Haro, Koualy Sanogo, Abdoul Aziz Sienou, Seydou Traore, Ismaila Thera, Hama Yalcouye, Irene Kuepfer, Paul Snell, Paul Milligan, Christian Ockenhouse, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Halidou Tinto, Abdoulaye Djimde, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Alassane Dicko, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo
In: Malaria journal, vol. 21, iss. 1, pp. 59, 2022.
(Tags: *Antimalarials/therapeutic use, *Malaria/drug therapy/epidemiology/prevention & control, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Chemoprevention, Child, Cross-Sectional Studies, Humans, Infant, Malaria, Mali, Mali/epidemiology, Nutrition, Nutritional Status, Preschool, RTS, S/AS01E, seasonal malaria chemoprevention, Seasons, Vaccination)| | | |
BACKGROUND: A recent trial in Burkina Faso and Mali showed that combining seasonal RTS,S/AS01(E) malaria vaccination with seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) substantially reduced the incidence of uncomplicated and severe malaria in young children compared to either intervention alone. Given the possible negative effect of malaria on nutrition, the study investigated whether these children also experienced lower prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. METHODS: In Burkina Faso and Mali 5920 children were randomized to receive either SMC alone, RTS,S/AS01(E) alone, or SMC combined with RTS,S/AS01(E) for three malaria transmission seasons (2017-2019). After each transmission season, anthropometric measurements were collected from all study children at a cross-sectional survey and used to derive nutritional status indicators, including the binary variables wasted and stunted (weight-for-height and height-for-age z-scores below – 2, respectively). Binary and continuous outcomes between treatment groups were compared by Poisson and linear regression. RESULTS: In 2017, compared to SMC alone, the combined intervention reduced the prevalence of wasting by approximately 12% [prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.88 (95% CI 0.75, 1.03)], and approximately 21% in 2018 [PR = 0.79 (95% CI 0.62, 1.01)]. Point estimates were similar for comparisons with RTS,S/AS01(E), but there was stronger evidence of a difference. There was at least a 30% reduction in the point estimates for the prevalence of severe wasting in the combined group compared to the other two groups in 2017 and 2018. There was no difference in the prevalence of moderate or severe wasting between the groups in 2019. The prevalence of stunting, low-MUAC-for-age or being underweight did not differ between groups for any of the three years. The prevalence of severe stunting was higher in the combined group compared to both other groups in 2018, and compared to RTS,S/AS01(E) alone in 2017; this observation does not have an obvious explanation and may be a chance finding. Overall, malnutrition was very common in this cohort, but declined over the study as the children became older. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high burden of malnutrition and malaria in the study populations, and a major reduction in the incidence of malaria in children receiving both interventions, this had only a modest impact on nutritional status. Therefore, other interventions are needed to reduce the high burden of malnutrition in these areas. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03143218 , registered 8th May 2017.
Jui-Chi Kuo, Shih-Hua Tan, Yu-Cheng Hsiao, Chinmaya Mutalik, Hui-Min Chen, Sibidou Yougbaré, Tsung-Rong Kuo
In: ACS Sustainable Chem Eng, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 464–471, 2022.
Metal nanoclusters (NCs) with unique chemical and physical properties have been extensively demonstrated to be emerging nanoantibiotics for fighting bacterial infections. Understanding the antibacterial mechanisms of metal nanoclusters is important for evaluating their clinical applications as nanoantibiotics. To understand the antibacterial mechanism, gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were applied as an antibacterial agent for real-time observations of their interactions with bacteria by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this work, a surface ligand of glutathione-conjugated (GSH)-AuNCs was prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. Optical and structural characterizations validated the successful preparation of GSH-AuNCs. Bacterial growth curves of Acetobacter aceti revealed that the antibacterial activity of GSH-AuNCs increased with the weight concentration. The antibacterial activity of GSH-AuNCs was confirmed by the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by GSH-AuNCs in A. aceti. Furthermore, real-time observations of interactions between GSH-AuNCs and A. aceti were made using in situ liquid cell TEM. Based on the results of real-time observations, GSH-AuNCs first attached onto the bacterial membranes of A. aceti by physical adsorption and then penetrated into A. aceti by internalization. Eventually, the production of intracellular ROS induced by GSH-AuNCs caused destruction of the bacterial membranes, which led to the death of A. aceti. After the bacterial membranes had been destroyed, A. aceti eventually died.
Martin Bienvenu Somda, Jacques Kaboré, Sheila Médina Karambiri, Emilie Dama, Der Dabiré, Charlie Franck Alfred Compaoré, Ernest Wendemanedgé Salou, Hamidou Ilboudo, Isidore Houaga, Fabrice Courtin, Adrien Marie Gaston Belem, Vincent Jamonneau, Zakaria Bengaly
In: Acta parasitologica, 2022.
PURPOSE: The boom in Burkina Faso’s artisanal gold mining since 2007 has attracted populations from Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea, which are the West African countries most affected by human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and therefore increases its risk of re-emergence. Our aim was to update the HAT data in Burkina Faso in the risk of the re-emergence context with the advent of artisanal gold mining. METHODS: The study was carried out in the southwestern Burkina Faso where entomological surveys were conducted using biconical traps in March 2017. Follow by an active medical survey in April 2017, which was targeted the gold panners in 7 villages closer to artisanal gold sites, using CATT, mini-anion exchange centrifugation technique, trypanolysis test (TL) and ELISA test to measure human/tsetse contacts. The buffy coat technique and the TL were also applied in pigs to check their reservoir role of human trypanosomes. RESULTS: Our results have shown no case of HAT among 958 individuals tested and all the 50 pigs were also negative, but the level of antibodies against tsetse saliva evidenced by ELISA revealed low human/tsetse contact. Moreover, gold panners practise agriculture and breeding in an infected tsetse area, which are increased the risk. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate that the risk of re-emergence is low. The passive surveillance system implemented in 2015 in southwestern Burkina Faso is needed to increase the sentinel sites to better cover this area by taking into account the gold mining. Finally, awareness-raising activities are needed among populations about HAT.
Paul Sondo, Marc Christian Tahita, Hamidou Ilboudo, Toussaint Rouamba, Karim Derra, Gauthier Tougri, Florence Ouédraogo, Béatrice Marie Adélaïde Konseibo, Eli Roamba, Sabina Dahlström Otienoburu, Bérenger Kaboré, Kalynn Kennon, Kadija Ouédraogo, Wend-Timbe-Noma Arlette Raïssa Zongo, Fadima Yaya Bocoum, Kasia Stepniewska, Mehul Dhorda, Philippe J. Guérin, Halidou Tinto
Boosting the impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) through simultaneous screening and treatment of household members of children receiving SMC in Burkina Faso: a protocol for a randomized open label trial. (Journal Article)
In: Archives of Public Health, vol. 80, iss. 1, pp. 41, 2022.
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health concern in sub-Sahara Africa. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with amodiaquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is one of the most important preventive interventions. Despite its implementation, the burden of malaria is still very high in children under five years old in Burkina Faso, suggesting that the expected impact of this promising strategy might not be attained. Development of innovative strategies to improve the efficacy of these existing malaria control measures is essential. In such context, we postulate that screening and treatment of malaria in household members of children receiving SMC could greatly improve the impact of SMC intervention and reduce malaria transmission in endemic settings. METHODS: This randomized superiority trial will be carried out in the Nanoro health district, Burkina Faso. The unit of randomisation will be the household and all eligible children from a household will be allocated to the same study group. Households with 3-59 months old children will be assigned to either (i) control group (SMC alone) or (ii) intervention (SMC+ screening of household members with standard Histidin Rich Protein Rapid Diagnostic Test (HRP2-RDT) and treatment if positive). The sample size will be 526 isolated households per arm, i.e., around 1052 children under SMC coverage and an expected 1315 household members. Included children will be followed-up for 24 months to fully cover two consecutive malaria transmission seasons and two SMC cycles. Children will be actively followed-up during the malaria transmission seasons while in the dry seasons the follow-up will be passive. CONCLUSION: The study will respond to a major public health concern by providing evidence of the efficacy of an innovative strategy to boost the impact of SMC intervention.
Estomih Mduma, Tinto Halidou, Berenger Kaboré, Thomas Walongo, Palpouguini Lompo, Justine Museveni, Joshua Gidabayda, Jean Gratz, Godfrey Guga, Caroline Kimathi, Jie Liu, Paschal Mdoe, Robert Moshiro, Max Petzold, Jan Singlovic, Martine Guillerm, Melba F. Gomes, Eric R. Houpt, Christine M. Halleux
In: PloS one, vol. 17, iss. 2, pp. e0264322, 2022.
BACKGROUND: Serious invasive infections in newborns are a major cause of death. Lack of data on etiological causes hampers progress towards reduction of mortality. This study aimed to identify pathogens responsible for such infections in young infants in sub-Saharan Africa and to describe their antibiotics resistance profile. METHODS: Between September 2016 and April 2018 we implemented an observational study in two rural sites in Burkina Faso and Tanzania enrolling young infants aged 0-59 days old with serious invasive infection. Blood samples underwent blood culture and molecular biology. RESULTS: In total 634 infants with clinical diagnosis of serious invasive infection were enrolled and 4.2% of the infants had a positive blood culture. The most frequent pathogens identified by blood culture were Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Escherichia coli. Gram-negative isolates were only partially susceptible to first line WHO recommended treatment for neonatal sepsis at community level. A total of 18.6% of the infants were PCR positive for at least one pathogen and Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most common bacteria detected. Among infants enrolled, 60/634 (9.5%) died. Positive blood culture but not positive PCR was associated with risk of death. For most deaths, no pathogen was identified either by blood culture or molecular testing, and hence a causal agent remained unclear. Mortality was associated with low body temperature, tachycardia, respiratory symptoms, convulsions, history of difficult feeding, movement only when stimulated or reduced level of consciousness, diarrhea and/or vomiting. CONCLUSION: While Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Escherichia coli were pathogens most frequently identified in infants with clinical suspicion of serious invasive infections, most cases remain without definite diagnosis, making more accurate diagnostic tools urgently needed. Antibiotics resistance to first line antibiotics is an increasing challenge even in rural Africa.
Liesbeth Martens, Bérenger Kaboré, Annelies Post, Christa E. Gaast-de Jongh, Jeroen D. Langereis, Halidou Tinto, Jan Jacobs, André J. Ven, Quirijn Mast, Marien I. Jonge
In: BMC infectious diseases, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 15, 2022.
(Tags: *Carrier State/epidemiology, *Staphylococcus aureus, Adult, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Child, Female, Haemophilus influenzae, Humans, Infant, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Male, Moraxella catarrhalis, Nasopharyngeal carriage, Nasopharynx, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae)| | | |
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal colonisation with clinically relevant bacterial pathogens is a risk factor for severe infections, such as pneumonia and bacteraemia. In this study, we investigated the determinants of nasopharyngeal carriage in febrile patients in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: From March 2016 to June 2017, we recruited 924 paediatric and adult patients presenting with fever, hypothermia or suspicion of severe infection to the Centre Medical avec Antenne Chirurgicale Saint Camille de Nanoro, Burkina Faso. We recorded a broad range of clinical data, collected nasopharyngeal swabs and tested them for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Using logistic regression, we investigated the determinants of carriage and aimed to find correlations with clinical outcome. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal colonisation with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was highly prevalent and strongly dependent on age and season. Females were less likely to be colonised with S. pneumoniae (OR 0.71
Martin Somda, Médina Karambiri, Jacques Kaboré, Emilie Dama, Compaoré Alfred, Ernest Salou, Hamidou Ilboudo, Idriss Gali-Gali, Sèsséya Soha, Zakaria Bengaly, Adrien Belem, Der Dabire
In: International Journal of Development Research, vol. 12, pp. 53422-53427, 2022.
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Une prospection médicale récente sur la trypanosomose humaine africaine (THA) dans des sites d’orpaillage au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso, a mis en évidence la présence de mouches tsé-tsé infectées et des populations venant de la Côte d’Ivoire et de la Guinée, les deux pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest les plus affectés par cette maladie. Cet état de fait, montre un risque de réémergence de cette maladie. L’objectif de cette étude était de recueillir les perceptions des populations vivant à proximité de ces sites d’orpaillage du Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso afin de proposer des stratégies pour minimiser ce risque de réémergence de la THA. Pour ce faire une enquête sur les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques (CAP) a été réalisée en entretien semi-structuré auprès des personnes ressources, suivie des enquêtes CAP individuelles ciblant les orpailleurs dans la zone d’étude. Les résultats ont montré que les 29 personnes ressources sont peu informées sur la THA. Ce résultat a été confirmé par les CAP individuelles auprès des 130 orpailleurs enquêtés qui sont peu informés sur la THA : 87,69% sur ses modes de transmission, 78,46% sur ses symptômes et 100% sur les stratégies appropriées de gestion. A l’issue de cette étude, des recommandations ont été faites.
Barkissa Mélika Traoré, Mathurin Koffi, Martial Kassi N’Djetchi, Dramane Kaba, Jacques Kaboré, Hamidou Ilboudo, Bernadin Ahouty Ahouty, Minayégninrin Koné, Bamoro Coulibaly, Thomas Konan, Adeline Segard, Lingué Kouakou, Thierry De Meeûs, Sophie Ravel, Philippe Solano, Jean-Mathieu Bart, Vincent Jamonneau
Free-ranging pigs identified as a multi-reservoir of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense in the Vavoua area, a historical sleeping sickness focus of Côte d’Ivoire. (Journal Article)
In: PLoS neglected tropical diseases, vol. 15, iss. 12, pp. e0010036, 2021.
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BACKGROUND: The existence of an animal reservoir of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense), the agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), may compromise the interruption of transmission targeted by World Health Organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of trypanosomes in pigs and people in the Vavoua HAT historical focus where cases were still diagnosed in the early 2010’s. METHODS: For the human survey, we used the CATT, mini-anion exchange centrifugation technique and immune trypanolysis tests. For the animal survey, the buffy coat technique was also used as well as the PCR using Trypanosoma species specific, including the T. b. gambiense TgsGP detection using single round and nested PCRs, performed from animal blood samples and from strains isolated from subjects positive for parasitological investigations. RESULTS: No HAT cases were detected among 345 people tested. A total of 167 pigs were investigated. Free-ranging pigs appeared significantly more infected than pigs in pen. Over 70% of free-ranging pigs were positive for CATT and parasitological investigations and 27-43% were positive to trypanolysis depending on the antigen used. T. brucei was the most prevalent species (57%) followed by T. congolense (24%). Blood sample extracted DNA of T. brucei positive subjects were negative to single round TgsGP PCR. However, 1/22 and 6/22 isolated strains were positive with single round and nested TgsGP PCRs, respectively. DISCUSSION: Free-ranging pigs were identified as a multi-reservoir of T. brucei and/or T. congolense with mixed infections of different strains. This trypanosome diversity hinders the easy and direct detection of T. b. gambiense. We highlight the lack of tools to prove or exclude with certainty the presence of T. b. gambiense. This study once more highlights the need of technical improvements to explore the role of animals in the epidemiology of HAT.
Moussa Lingani, Serge H Zango, Innocent Valéa, Massa Dit A Bonko, Sékou O Samadoulougou, Toussaint Rouamba, Marc C Tahita, Ma"imouna Sanou, Annie Robert, Halidou Tinto, Philippe Donnen, Mich`ele Dramaix
In: Trop. Med. Health, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 90, 2021, ISSN: 1348-8945 1349-4147, (© 2021. The Author(s). PMID: 34736524 PMCID: PMC8567650).
BACKGROUND: Malaria and sexually transmitted/reproductive tract
infections (STI/RTI) are leading and preventable causes of low
birthweight in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing their impact on
pregnancy outcomes requires efficient interventions that can be
easily integrated into the antenatal care package. The paucity
of data on malaria and STI/RTI coinfection, however, limits
efforts to control these infections. This study aimed to
determine the prevalence and associated factors of malaria and
STI/RTI coinfection among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 402
pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the Yako health
district. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected,
and pregnant women were tested for peripheral malaria by
microscopy. Hemoglobin levels were also measured by
spectrophotometry and curable bacterial STI/RTI were tested on
cervico-vaginal swabs using rapid diagnostic test for chlamydia
and syphilis, and Gram staining for bacterial vaginosis. A
multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the
association of malaria and STI/RTI coinfection with the
characteristics of included pregnant women. RESULTS: The
prevalence of malaria and at least one STI/RTI coinfection was
12.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: [9.8-16.7]), malaria and
bacterial vaginosis coinfection was 12.2% (95% CI:
[9.3-15.9]), malaria and chlamydial coinfection was 1.6% (95%
CI: [0.6-3.8]). No coinfection was reported for malaria and
syphilis. The individual prevalence was 17.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%,
67.7% and 73.3%, respectively, for malaria infection,
chlamydia, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis and STI/RTI
combination. Only 10% of coinfections were symptomatic, and
thus, 90% of women with coinfection would have been missed by
the symptoms-based diagnostic approach. In the multivariate analysis, the first pregnancy (aOR = 2.4 [95% CI: 1.2-4.7]) was
the only factor significantly associated with malaria and
STI/RTI coinfection. Clinical symptoms were not associated with
malaria and STI/RTI coinfection. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of
malaria and curable STI/RTI coinfection was high among pregnant
women. The poor performance of the clinical symptoms to predict
coinfection suggests that alternative interventions are needed.
Serge Ouoba, Jean Claude Romaric Pingdwinde Ouedraogo, Moussa Lingani, Bunthen E, Md Razeen Ashraf Hussain, Ko Ko, Shintaro Nagashima, Aya Sugiyama, Tomoyuki Akita, Halidou Tinto, Junko Tanaka
In: BMC Infect. Dis., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1126, 2021, ISSN: 1471-2334, (© 2021. The Author(s). PMID: 34724902 PMCID: PMC8561994).
(Tags: Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Genotype, Hepacivirus/genetics, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis C/epidemiology, Humans, Prevalence, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Seroprevalence, Systematic review)| | | |
BACKGROUND: Detailed characteristics of Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
infection in Burkina Faso are scarce. The main aim of this study
was to assess HCV seroprevalence in various settings and
populations at risk in Burkina Faso between 1990 and 2020.
Secondary objectives included the prevalence of HCV Ribonucleic
acid (RNA) and the distribution of HCV genotypes. METHODS: A
systematic database search, supplemented by a manual search, was
conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and African Index
Medicus. Studies reporting HCV seroprevalence data in low and
high-risk populations in Burkina Faso were included, and a
random-effects meta-analysis was applied. Risk of bias was
assessed using the Joanna Briggs institute checklist. RESULTS:
Low-risk populations were examined in 31 studies involving a
total of 168,151 subjects, of whom 8330 were positive for HCV
antibodies. Six studies included a total of 1484 high-risk
persons, and 96 had antibodies to HCV. The pooled seroprevalence
in low-risk populations was 3.72% (95% CI: 3.20-4.28) and
4.75% (95% CI: 1.79-8.94) in high-risk groups. A
non-significant decreasing trend was observed over the study
period. Seven studies tested HCV RNA in a total of 4759
individuals at low risk for HCV infection, and 81 were positive.
The meta-analysis of HCV RNA yielded a pooled prevalence of
1.65% (95% CI: 0.74-2.89%) in low-risk populations, which is
assumed to be indicative of HCV prevalence in the general
population of Burkina Faso and suggests that about 301,174
people are active HCV carriers in the country. Genotypes 2 and 1
were the most frequent, with 60.3% and 25.0%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: HCV seroprevalence is intermediate in Burkina Faso
and indicates the need to implement effective control
strategies. There is a paucity of data at the national level and
for rural and high-risk populations. General population
screening and linkage to care are recommended, with special
attention to rural and high-risk populations.
Rafael Dal-Ré, Linda-Gail Bekker, Christian Gluud, Søren Holm, Vivekanand Jha, Gregory A Poland, Frits R Rosendaal, Brigitte Schwarzer-Daum, Esperanc ca Sevene, Halidou Tinto, Teck Chuan Voo, Nadarajah Sreeharan
In: Lancet Infect. Dis., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. e342–e347, 2021, ISSN: 1474-4457 1473-3099, (Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID: 34019801 PMCID: PMC8131060).
(Tags: Clinical Trials as Topic, COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage/immunology, COVID-19/epidemiology/immunology/prevention & control/virology, Double-Blind Method, Humans, Immunogenicity, Pandemics/prevention & control, SARS-CoV-2/immunology, Vaccine)| | | |
Large-scale deployment of COVID-19 vaccines will seriously affect
the ongoing phases 2 and 3 randomised placebo-controlled trials
assessing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates. The effect will be
particularly acute in high-income countries where the entire
adult or older population could be vaccinated by late 2021.
Regrettably, only a small proportion of the population in many
low-income and middle-income countries will have access to
available vaccines. Sponsors of COVID-19 vaccine candidates
currently in phase 2 or initiating phase 3 trials in 2021 should
consider continuing the research in countries with limited
affordability and availability of COVID-19 vaccines. Several
ethical principles must be implemented to ensure the equitable,
non-exploitative, and respectful conduct of trials in
resource-poor settings. Once sufficient knowledge on the
immunogenicity response to COVID-19 vaccines is acquired,
non-inferiority immunogenicity trials-comparing the immune
response of a vaccine candidate to that of an authorised
vaccine-would probably be the most common trial design. Until
then, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trials will
continue to play a role in the development of new vaccine
candidates. WHO or the Council for International Organizations of
Medical Sciences should define an ethical framework for the
requirements and benefits for trial participants and host
communities in resource-poor settings that should require
commitment from all vaccine candidate sponsors from high-income
Moussa Lingani, Serge H Zango, Innocent Valéa, Daniel Valia, Ma"imouna Sanou, Sékou O Samandoulougou, Annie Robert, Halidou Tinto, Mich`ele Dramaix, Philippe Donnen
In: Sci. Rep., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 21332, 2021, ISSN: 2045-2322, (© 2021. The Author(s). PMID: 34716389 PMCID: PMC8556330).
(Tags: )| | | |
Low birthweight (LBW) is a worldwide problem that particularly
affects developing countries. However, limited information is
available on its magnitude in rural area of Burkina Faso. This
study aimed to estimate the prevalence of low birthweight and to
identify its associated factors in Nanoro health district. A
secondary analysis of data collected during a cross-sectional
survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of low birthweight
in Nanoro health and demographic surveillance system area
(HDSS). Maternal characteristics extracted from antenatal care
books or by interview, completed by malaria diagnosis were
examined through a multi-level logistic regression to estimate
odd-ratios of association with low birthweight. Significance
level was set at 5%. Of the 291 neonates examined, the
prevalence of low birthweight was 12%. After adjustment for
socio-demographic, obstetric and malaria prevention variables, being primigravid (OR = 8.84, [95% CI: 3.72-21.01]), or multigravid with history of stillbirth (OR = 5.03, [95% CI:
1.54-16.40]), as well as the lack of long-lasting insecticide
treated bed net use by the mother the night preceding the admission for delivery (OR = 2.5, [95% CI: 1.1-5.9]) were
significantly associated with neonate low birthweight. The
number of antenatal visits however did not confer any direct
benefit on birthweight status within this study area. The
prevalence of low birthweight was high in the study area and
represents an important public health problem in Burkina Faso.
In light of these results, a redefinition of the content of the
antenatal care package is needed.
Serge Henri Zango, Moussa Lingani, Innocent Valea, Ouindpanga Sekou Samadoulougou, Biebo Bihoun, Diagniagou Lankoande, Phillipe Donnen, Michele Dramaix, Halidou Tinto, Annie Robert
In: BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 722, 2021, ISSN: 1471-2393, (© 2021. The Author(s). PMID: 34706705 PMCID: PMC8549350).
BACKGROUND: Malaria and curable sexually transmitted infections
(STIs) are severe infections associated with poor pregnancy
outcomes in sub-Saharan countries. These infections are
responsible for low birth weight, preterm birth, and
miscarriage. In Burkina Faso, many interventions recommended by
the World Health Organization were implemented to control the
impact of these infections. After decades of intervention, we
assessed the impact of these infections on pregnancy outcomes in
rural setting of Burkina Faso. METHODS: Antenatal care and
delivery data of pregnant women attending health facilities in
2016 and 2017 were collected in two rural districts namely
Nanoro and Yako, in Burkina Faso. Regression models with
likelihood ratio test were used to assess the association
between infections and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: During the
two years, 31639 pregnant women received antenatal care. Malaria
without STI, STI without malaria, and their coinfections were
reported for 7359 (23.3%), 881 (2.8 %), and 388 (1.2%) women,
respectively. Low birth weight, miscarriage, and stillbirth were
observed in 2754 (10.5 %), 547 (2.0 %), and 373 (1.3 %)
women, respectively. Our data did not show an association
between low birth weight and malaria [Adjusted OR: 0.91 (0.78 –
1.07)], STIs [Adjusted OR: 0.74 (0.51 – 1.07)] and coinfection
[Adjusted OR: 1.15 (0.75 – 1.78)]. Low birth weight was strongly
associated with primigravidae [Adjusted OR: 3.53 (3.12 – 4.00)].
Both miscarriage and stillbirth were associated with malaria
[Adjusted OR: 1.31 (1.07 – 1.59)], curable STI [Adjusted OR:
1.65 (1.06 – 2.59)], and coinfection [Adjusted OR: 2.00 (1.13 –
3.52)]. CONCLUSION: Poor pregnancy outcomes remained frequent in
rural Burkina Faso. Malaria, curable STIs, and their
coinfections were associated with both miscarriage and
stillbirth in rural Burkina. More effort should be done to
reduce the proportion of pregnancies lost associated with these
curable infections by targeting interventions in primigravidae
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