Ananyo Choudhury, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Tinashe Chikowore, Dhriti Sengupta, Palwende Romuald Boua, Nigel J. Crowther, Godfred Agongo, Gershim Asiki, F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Isaac Kisiangani, Eric Maimela, Matshane Masemola-Maphutha, Lisa K. Micklesfield, Engelbert A. Nonterah, Shane A. Norris, Hermann Sorgho, Halidou Tinto, Stephen Tollman, Sarah E. Graham, Cristen J. Willer, Scott Hazelhurst, Michèle Ramsay
In: Nature communications, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 2578, 2022.
Genetic associations for lipid traits have identified hundreds of variants with clear differences across European, Asian and African studies. Based on a sub-Saharan-African GWAS for lipid traits in the population cross-sectional AWI-Gen cohort (N = 10,603) we report a novel LDL-C association in the GATB region (P-value=1.56 × 10(-8)). Meta-analysis with four other African cohorts (N = 23,718) provides supporting evidence for the LDL-C association with the GATB/FHIP1A region and identifies a novel triglyceride association signal close to the FHIT gene (P-value =2.66 × 10(-8)). Our data enable fine-mapping of several well-known lipid-trait loci including LDLR, PMFBP1 and LPA. The transferability of signals detected in two large global studies (GLGC and PAGE) consistently improves with an increase in the size of the African replication cohort. Polygenic risk score analysis shows increased predictive accuracy for LDL-C levels with the narrowing of genetic distance between the discovery dataset and our cohort. Novel discovery is enhanced with the inclusion of African data.
Dídac Macià, Joseph J. Campo, Gemma Moncunill, Chenjerai Jairoce, Augusto J. Nhabomba, Maximilian Mpina, Hermann Sorgho, David Dosoo, Ousmane Traore, Kwadwo Asamoah Kusi, Nana Aba Williams, Amit Oberai, Arlo Randall, Hèctor Sanz, Clarissa Valim, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Halidou Tinto, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Simon Kariuki, Ben Gyan, Claudia Daubenberger, Benjamin Mordmüller, Paula Petrone, Carlota Dobaño
In: JCI insight, vol. 7, iss. 10, 2022, ISSN: 2379-3708.
(Tags: *Adaptive immunity, *Antigen, *Epidemiology, *Immunology, *Infectious disease, *Malaria, *Malaria Vaccines, *Malaria/prevention & control, Antibodies, Antigens, Child, Falciparum/prevention & control, Humans, Immunoglobulin G, Infant, Protozoan, Vaccination)| | | |
The RTS,S/AS01E vaccine targets the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) parasite. Protein microarrays were used to measure levels of IgG against 1000 P. falciparum antigens in 2138 infants (age 6-12 weeks) and children (age 5-17 months) from 6 African sites of the phase III trial, sampled before and at 4 longitudinal visits after vaccination. One month postvaccination, IgG responses to 17% of all probed antigens showed differences between RTS,S/AS01E and comparator vaccination groups, whereas no prevaccination differences were found. A small subset of antigens presented IgG levels reaching 4- to 8-fold increases in the RTS,S/AS01E group, comparable in magnitude to anti-CSP IgG levels (~11-fold increase). They were strongly cross-correlated and correlated with anti-CSP levels, waning similarly over time and reincreasing with the booster dose. Such an intriguing phenomenon may be due to cross-reactivity of anti-CSP antibodies with these antigens. RTS,S/AS01E vaccinees with strong off-target IgG responses had an estimated lower clinical malaria incidence after adjusting for age group, site, and postvaccination anti-CSP levels. RTS,S/AS01E-induced IgG may bind strongly not only to CSP, but also to unrelated malaria antigens, and this seems to either confer, or at least be a marker of, increased protection from clinical malaria.
Daniel Valia, Brecht Ingelbeen, Bérenger Kaboré, Ibrahima Karama, Marjan Peeters, Palpouguini Lompo, Erika Vlieghe, Annelies Post, Janneke Cox, Quirijn De Mast, Annie Robert, Marianne A B Van Der Sande, Hector Rodriguez Villalobos, Andre Van Der Ven, Halidou Tinto, Jan Jacobs
In: Antimicrob Resist Infect Control, vol. 11, iss. 1, pp. 59, 2022, ISSN: 2047-2994.
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BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing. To control AMR, WHO recommends monitoring antibiotic use, in particular Watch antibiotics. These are critically important antibiotics, with restricted use because at risk of becoming ineffective due to increasing AMR. We investigated pre-hospital antibiotic use in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: During 2016-2017, we collected data from patients aged > 3 months presenting with severe acute fever to the rural hospital of Nanoro Health District, Burkina Faso, including antibiotic use in the two weeks prior to consultation or hospitalization. We analysed reported antibiotic use by applying the WHO Access, Watch, Reserve classification. RESULTS: Of 920 febrile participants (63.0% ≤ 14 years), pre-hospital antibiotic use was reported by 363 (39.5%). Among these 363, microbiological diagnoses were available for 275 (75.8%) patients, of whom 162 (58.9%) were non-bacterial infections. Use of more than one antibiotic was reported by 58/363 (16.0%) participants. Of 491 self-referred patients who did not previously visit a primary health care center, 131 (26.7%) reported antibiotic use. Of 424 antibiotics reported, 265 (62.5%) were Access and 159 (37.5%) Watch antibiotics. Watch antibiotic use was more frequent among patients > 14 year olds (51.1%) compared to those 0-14 year old (30.7%, p < 0.001) and among referrals from the primary health care centers (42.2%) compared to self-referred patients (28.1%, p = 0.004). Most frequently reported Watch antibiotics were ceftriaxone (114, 71.7%) and ciprofloxacin (32, 20.1%). CONCLUSION: The reported frequent use of Watch group antibiotics among febrile patients prior to presentation to the hospital in rural Burkina Faso highlights the need to develop targeted interventions to improve antibiotic use in community settings as part of strengthening antibiotic stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. This should include facilitating referral, access to qualified prescribers and diagnostic tools in rural primary health care centers. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02669823. Registration date was February 1, 2016.
Silene Casari, Monica Di Paola, Elena Banci, Salou Diallo, Luca Scarallo, Sara Renzo, Agnese Gori, Sonia Renzi, Monica Paci, Quirijn Mast, Tal Pecht, Karim Derra, Berenger Kaboré, Halidou Tinto, Duccio Cavalieri, Paolo Lionetti
In: Nutrients, vol. 14, iss. 9, 2022, ISSN: 2072-6643.
(Tags: *Economic Status, *Urbanization, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Feeding Behavior, fiber intake, Humans, rural diet, Rural Population, sub-Saharan Africa, Urban Population, urbanization, Western diet)| | | |
(1) Background: Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing the fastest urbanization worldwide. People in rural areas still have a traditional and rural lifestyle, whereas the Westernization of diet and lifestyle is already evident in urban areas. This study describes dietary habits of families in Burkina Faso living at different levels of urbanization. (2) Methods: Data on lifestyle, socio-economic conditions, health status and anthropometry were collected from 30 families living in rural villages, a small town and the capital city. A food frequency questionnaire and a 24 h recall diary were used to estimate dietary habits and macronutrients intake. (3) Results: The urban cohort showed a more diversified diet, with a higher intake of animal protein and, especially in children, a higher consumption of simple sugars. Fiber intake was significantly higher in the rural and semi-urbanized cohorts. As expected, overweight and obesity gradually increased with the level of urbanization. In semi-urbanized and urban families, we observed coexistence of under- and over-nutrition, whereas in rural families, a portion of children were wasted and stunted, and adults were underweight. (4) Conclusions: These three cohorts represent a model of the effect on diet of rural-to-urban migration. Rural diet and traditional habits are replaced by a Western-oriented diet when families move to urbanized areas. This dietary transition and increased socio-economic status in newly developing urban areas have a major impact on disease epidemiology, resembling the past evolution in Western countries.
WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network Falciparum Haematology Study Group
In: BMC medicine, vol. 20, iss. 1, no. 1, pp. 85, 2022, ISSN: 1741-7015.
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with anaemia-related morbidity, attributable to host, parasite and drug factors. We quantified the haematological response following treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria to identify the factors associated with malarial anaemia. METHODS: Individual patient data from eligible antimalarial efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, available through the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network data repository prior to August 2015, were pooled using standardised methodology. The haematological response over time was quantified using a multivariable linear mixed effects model with nonlinear terms for time, and the model was then used to estimate the mean haemoglobin at day of nadir and day 7. Multivariable logistic regression quantified risk factors for moderately severe anaemia (haemoglobin < 7 g/dL) at day 0, day 3 and day 7 as well as a fractional fall ≥ 25% at day 3 and day 7. RESULTS: A total of 70,226 patients, recruited into 200 studies between 1991 and 2013, were included in the analysis: 50,859 (72.4%) enrolled in Africa, 18,451 (26.3%) in Asia and 916 (1.3%) in South America. The median haemoglobin concentration at presentation was 9.9 g/dL (range 5.0-19.7 g/dL) in Africa, 11.6 g/dL (range 5.0-20.0 g/dL) in Asia and 12.3 g/dL (range 6.9-17.9 g/dL) in South America. Moderately severe anaemia (Hb < 7g/dl) was present in 8.4% (4284/50,859) of patients from Africa, 3.3% (606/18,451) from Asia and 0.1% (1/916) from South America. The nadir haemoglobin occurred on day 2 post treatment with a mean fall from baseline of 0.57 g/dL in Africa and 1.13 g/dL in Asia. Independent risk factors for moderately severe anaemia on day 7, in both Africa and Asia, included moderately severe anaemia at baseline (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 16.10 and AOR = 23.00, respectively), young age (age < 1 compared to ≥ 12 years AOR = 12.81 and AOR = 6.79, respectively), high parasitaemia (AOR = 1.78 and AOR = 1.58, respectively) and delayed parasite clearance (AOR = 2.44 and AOR = 2.59, respectively). In Asia, patients treated with an artemisinin-based regimen were at significantly greater risk of moderately severe anaemia on day 7 compared to those treated with a non-artemisinin-based regimen (AOR = 2.06 [95%CI 1.39-3.05], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, the nadir haemoglobin occurs 2 days after starting treatment. Although artemisinin-based treatments increase the rate of parasite clearance, in Asia they are associated with a greater risk of anaemia during recovery.
Biébo Bihoun, Serge Henri Zango, Maminata Traoré-Coulibaly, Innocent Valea, Raffaella Ravinetto, Jean Pierre Van Geertruyden, Umberto D’Alessandro, Halidou Tinto, Annie Robert
In: BMC pregnancy and childbirth, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 248, 2022, ISSN: 1471-2393.
(Tags: *Malaria, *Malaria/epidemiology, Adult, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Falciparum/parasitology, Female, Gravidity, Humans, Malaria, placenta, Placenta/parasitology, Pregnancy, Risk Factors)| | | |
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy can result in placental infection with fetal implications. This study aimed at assessing placental malaria (PM) prevalence and its associated factors in a cohort of pregnant women with peripheral malaria and their offspring. METHOD: The data were collected in the framework of a clinical trial on treatments for malaria in pregnant women . Placental malaria (PM) was diagnosed by histopathological detection of parasites and/or malaria pigment on placenta biopsies taken at delivery. Factors associated with PM were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Out of 745 biopsies examined, PM was diagnosed in 86.8 % of women. Acute, chronic and past PM were retrieved in 11 (1.5 %), 170 (22.8 %), and 466 (62.6 %) women, respectively. A modifying effect was observed in the association of gravidity or anemia at the study start with pooled PM (presence of parasites and/or malaria pigment). In women under 30, gravidity ≤ 2 was associated with an increased prevalence of pooled PM but in women aged 30 years or more, gravidity was no more associated with pooled PM (OR 6.81, 95 % CI 3.18 – 14.60; and OR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.10 – 2.76, respectively). Anemia was associated with pooled PM in women under 30 (OR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.03 – 3.72) but not in women aged 30 years or more (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.31 – 1.49). Similarly, the association of gravidity with past-chronic PM depended also on age. A higher prevalence of active PM was observed in women under 30 presenting with symptomatic malaria (OR 3.79, 95 % CI 1.55 – 9.27), while there was no significant increase in the prevalence of active PM (presence of parasites only) in women with symptomatic malaria when aged 30 years or more (OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.10 – 1.75). In women with chronic PM, the prevalence of low birth weight or prematurity was the highest (31.2 %) as compared with past PM or no PM. CONCLUSION: Despite the rapid diagnosis and efficacious treatment of peripheral infection, the prevalence of placental malaria remained high in women with P. falciparum peripheral infection in Nanoro, especially in younger women This underlines the importance of preventive measures in this specific group.
Moussa Lingani, Serge Henri Zango, Innocent Valéa, Georges Somé, Maïmouna Sanou, Sékou O. Samadoulougou, Serge Ouoba, Eli Rouamba, Annie Robert, Michèle Dramaix, Philippe Donnen, Halidou Tinto
In: BMC pregnancy and childbirth, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 228, 2022, ISSN: 1471-2393.
(Tags: *Antimalarials/therapeutic use, *Rural Health, Associated factors, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Infant, Low Birth Weight, Newborn, Pregnancy, Risk Factors, Rural area)| | | |
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major factor of neonate mortality that particularly affects developing countries. However, the scarcity of data to support decision making to reduce LBW occurrence is a major obstacle in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LBW at the Yako health district in a rural area of Burkina Faso. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted at four peripheral health centers among mothers and their newly delivered babies. The mothers’ socio-demographic and obstetrical characteristics were collected by face-to-face interview or by review of antenatal care books. Maternal malaria was tested by standard microscopy and neonates’ birth weights were documented. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with LBW. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 600 neonates examined, the prevalence of low birth weight was 11.0%. Adjustment for socio-demographic characteristic, medical conditions, obstetrical history, malaria prevention measures by multivariate logistic regression found that being a primigravid mother (aOR = 1.8, [95% CI: 1.1-3.0]), the presence of malaria infection (aOR = 1.9, [95% CI: 1.1-3.5]), the uptake of less than three doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp-SP) (aOR = 2.2, [95% CI: 1.3-3.9]), the presence of maternal fever at the time of delivery (aOR = 2.8, [95% CI: 1.5-5.3]) and being a female neonate (aOR = 1.9, [95% CI: 1.1-3.3]) were independently associated with an increased risk of LBW occurrence. The number of antenatal visits performed by the mother during her pregnancy did not provide any direct protection for low birth weight. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of LBW remained high in the study area. Maternal malaria, fever and low uptake of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine doses were significantly associated with LBW and should be adequately addressed by public health interventions.
Tzu-Yang Chen, Tsung-Rong Kuo, Sibidou Yougbaré, Lu-Yin Lin, Cheng-Yu Xiao
In: Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 608, iss. Pt 1, pp. 493-503, 2022.
Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF67) derivatives are considered as promising active materials for energy storage owing to the possible formation of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite. Cobalt oxide has multiple redox states for generating redox reactions for charge storage, while N-doped graphite can provide high electrical conductivity for charge transfer. In this study, it is the first time to synthesize binder-free electrodes composed of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite derived from ZIF67 on carbon cloth (CC) for supercapacitor (SC). Successive oxidation and carbonization along with additional coverage of ZIF67 derivatives are applied to synthesize ZIF67 derivatives composed of cobalt oxide, N-doped graphite and cobalt oxide/N-doped graphite composites with different layer compositions. The highest specific capacitance (C(F)) of 90.0F/g at 20 mV/s is obtained for the oxidized ZIF67/carbonized ZIF67/carbon cloth (O67/C67/CC) electrode, due to the large surface area and high electrical conductivity benefitted from preferable morphology and growing sequence of Co(3)O(4) and N-doped graphite. The symmetric SC composed of O67/C67/CC electrodes shows the maximum energy density of 2.53 Wh/kg at the power density of 50 W/kg. Cycling stability with C(F) retention of 70% and Coulombic efficiency of 65% after 6000 times repeatedly charge/discharge process is also obtained for this symmetric SC.
Chen-Yi Huang, Tsung-Rong Kuo, Sibidou Yougbaré, Lu-Yin Lin
In: Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 607, iss. Pt 2, pp. 1457-1465, 2022.
Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) is one of the promising cathode materials of lithium ion battery (LIB), but poor electrical conductivity restricts its electrochemical performance. Carbon coating can improve electrical conductivity of LFP without changing its intrinsic property. Uniform coating of carbon on LFP is significant to avoid charge congregation and unpreferable redox reactions. It is the first time to apply the commercial organic binder, Super P® (SP), as carbon source to achieve uniform coating on LFP as cathode material of LIB. The simple and economical mechanofusion method is firstly applied to coat different amounts of SP on LFP. The LIB with the cathode material of optimized SP-coated LFP shows the highest capacity of 165.6 mAh/g at 0.1C and 59.8 mAh/g at 10C, indicating its high capacity and excellent high-rate charge/discharge capability. SP is applied on other commercial LFP materials, M121 and M23, for carbon coating. Enhanced high-rate charge/discharge capabilities are also achieved for LIB with SP-coated M121 and M23 as cathode materials. This new material and technique for carbon coating is verified to be applicable on different LFP materials. This novel carbon coating method is expected to apply on other cathode materials of LIB with outstanding electrochemical performances.
Fiona B. Tamburini, Dylan Maghini, Ovokeraye H. Oduaran, Ryan Brewster, Michaella R. Hulley, Venesa Sahibdeen, Shane A. Norris, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn, Ryan G. Wagner, Alisha N. Wade, Floidy Wafawanaka, F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Rhian Twine, Zané Lombard, Scott Hazelhurst, Ami S. Bhatt
In: Nature communications, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 926, 2022.
(Tags: )| | | |
Human gut microbiome research focuses on populations living in high-income countries and to a lesser extent, non-urban agriculturalist and hunter-gatherer societies. The scarcity of research between these extremes limits our understanding of how the gut microbiota relates to health and disease in the majority of the world’s population. Here, we evaluate gut microbiome composition in transitioning South African populations using short- and long-read sequencing. We analyze stool from adult females living in rural Bushbuckridge (n = 118) or urban Soweto (n = 51) and find that these microbiomes are taxonomically intermediate between those of individuals living in high-income countries and traditional communities. We demonstrate that reference collections are incomplete for characterizing microbiomes of individuals living outside high-income countries, yielding artificially low beta diversity measurements, and generate complete genomes of undescribed taxa, including Treponema, Lentisphaerae, and Succinatimonas. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome of South Africans does not conform to a simple "western-nonwestern" axis and contains undescribed microbial diversity.
Toussaint Rouamba, Esperance Ouédraogo, Houreratou Barry, Nobila Valentin Yaméogo, Apoline Sondo, Rainatou Boly, Jacques Zoungrana, Abdoul Risgou Ouédraogo, Marc Christian Tahita, Armel Poda, Arnaud Eric Diendéré, Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo, Innocent Valea, Isidore Traoré, Zekiba Tarnagda, Maxime K. Drabo, Halidou Tinto
Assessment of Recovery Time, Worsening and Death, among COVID-19 inpatients and outpatients, under treatment with Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine plus Azithromycin Combination in Burkina Faso. (Journal Article)
In: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2022.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the statistical relationship between the use of chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (CQ/HCQ+AZ) and virological recovery, disease worsening and death among out- and inpatients with COVID-19 in Burkina Faso. DESIGNS: This was a retrospective observational study that compared outcomes in terms of time to recovery, worsening, and death in patients who received CQ/HCQ+AZ and those who did not, using a multivariable Cox or Poisson model before and after propensity matching. RESULTS: Of the 863 patients included in the study, about 50% (432/863) were home-based follow-up patients and 50% were inpatients. Of these, 83.3% (746/863) received at least one dose of CQ/HCQ+AZ and 13.7% (118/863) did not. There were no significant differences in associated time to recovery for patients receiving any CQ/HCQ+AZ (adj. HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 0.76 – 2.71]). Similarly, there was no significant association between CQ/HCQ+AZ use and worsening (adj. IRR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.50 – 1.50]). However, compared with the untreated group, the treated group had a lower risk of death (adj. HR, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.10 – 0.44). CONCLUSION: The study provided valuable additional information on the use of CQ/HCQ in patients with COVID-19 and did not show any harmful outcomes of CQ/HCQ + AZ treatment.
Palwende Romuald Boua, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Ananyo Choudhury, Hermann Sorgho, Engelbert A. Nonterah, Godfred Agongo, Gershim Asiki, Lisa Micklesfield, Solomon Choma, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Scott Hazelhurst, Halidou Tinto, Nigel J. Crowther, Christopher G. Mathew, Michèle Ramsay
In: Nature communications, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 855, 2022.
(Tags: Adult, Africa South of the Sahara, Atherosclerosis/*genetics/*pathology, Autoantigens/genetics, Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness/*statistics & numerical data, Endocrine-Gland-Derived/genetics, Female, Gastrointestinal Hormones/genetics, Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics, Genome/genetics, Histones/genetics, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Polymorphism, Ribonucleoproteins/genetics, Sex Factors, Single Nucleotide/genetics, Sorting Nexins/genetics, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)| | | |
Atherosclerosis precedes the onset of clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We used carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) to investigate genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis in 7894 unrelated adults (3963 women, 3931 men; 40 to 60 years) resident in four sub-Saharan African countries. cIMT was measured by ultrasound and genotyping was performed on the H3Africa SNP Array. Two new African-specific genome-wide significant loci for mean-max cIMT, SIRPA (p = 4.7E-08), and FBXL17 (p = 2.5E-08), were identified. Sex-stratified analysis revealed associations with one male-specific locus, SNX29 (p = 6.3E-09), and two female-specific loci, LARP6 (p = 2.4E-09) and PROK1 (p = 1.0E-08). We replicate previous cIMT associations with different lead SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs primarily identified in European populations. Our study find significant enrichment for genes involved in oestrogen response from female-specific signals. The genes identified show biological relevance to atherosclerosis and/or CVDs, sex-differences and transferability of signals from non-African studies.
Jane Grant, Issaka Sagara, Issaka Zongo, Matthew Cairns, Rakiswendé Serge Yerbanga, Modibo Diarra, Charles Zoungrana, Djibrilla Issiaka, Frédéric Nikièma, Frédéric Sompougdou, Amadou Tapily, Mahamadou Kaya, Alassane Haro, Koualy Sanogo, Abdoul Aziz Sienou, Seydou Traore, Ismaila Thera, Hama Yalcouye, Irene Kuepfer, Paul Snell, Paul Milligan, Christian Ockenhouse, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Halidou Tinto, Abdoulaye Djimde, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Alassane Dicko, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo
In: Malaria journal, vol. 21, iss. 1, pp. 59, 2022.
(Tags: *Antimalarials/therapeutic use, *Malaria/drug therapy/epidemiology/prevention & control, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Chemoprevention, Child, Cross-Sectional Studies, Humans, Infant, Malaria, Mali, Mali/epidemiology, Nutrition, Nutritional Status, Preschool, RTS, S/AS01E, seasonal malaria chemoprevention, Seasons, Vaccination)| | | |
BACKGROUND: A recent trial in Burkina Faso and Mali showed that combining seasonal RTS,S/AS01(E) malaria vaccination with seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) substantially reduced the incidence of uncomplicated and severe malaria in young children compared to either intervention alone. Given the possible negative effect of malaria on nutrition, the study investigated whether these children also experienced lower prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. METHODS: In Burkina Faso and Mali 5920 children were randomized to receive either SMC alone, RTS,S/AS01(E) alone, or SMC combined with RTS,S/AS01(E) for three malaria transmission seasons (2017-2019). After each transmission season, anthropometric measurements were collected from all study children at a cross-sectional survey and used to derive nutritional status indicators, including the binary variables wasted and stunted (weight-for-height and height-for-age z-scores below – 2, respectively). Binary and continuous outcomes between treatment groups were compared by Poisson and linear regression. RESULTS: In 2017, compared to SMC alone, the combined intervention reduced the prevalence of wasting by approximately 12% [prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.88 (95% CI 0.75, 1.03)], and approximately 21% in 2018 [PR = 0.79 (95% CI 0.62, 1.01)]. Point estimates were similar for comparisons with RTS,S/AS01(E), but there was stronger evidence of a difference. There was at least a 30% reduction in the point estimates for the prevalence of severe wasting in the combined group compared to the other two groups in 2017 and 2018. There was no difference in the prevalence of moderate or severe wasting between the groups in 2019. The prevalence of stunting, low-MUAC-for-age or being underweight did not differ between groups for any of the three years. The prevalence of severe stunting was higher in the combined group compared to both other groups in 2018, and compared to RTS,S/AS01(E) alone in 2017; this observation does not have an obvious explanation and may be a chance finding. Overall, malnutrition was very common in this cohort, but declined over the study as the children became older. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high burden of malnutrition and malaria in the study populations, and a major reduction in the incidence of malaria in children receiving both interventions, this had only a modest impact on nutritional status. Therefore, other interventions are needed to reduce the high burden of malnutrition in these areas. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03143218 , registered 8th May 2017.
Jui-Chi Kuo, Shih-Hua Tan, Yu-Cheng Hsiao, Chinmaya Mutalik, Hui-Min Chen, Sibidou Yougbaré, Tsung-Rong Kuo
In: ACS Sustainable Chem Eng, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 464–471, 2022.
Metal nanoclusters (NCs) with unique chemical and physical properties have been extensively demonstrated to be emerging nanoantibiotics for fighting bacterial infections. Understanding the antibacterial mechanisms of metal nanoclusters is important for evaluating their clinical applications as nanoantibiotics. To understand the antibacterial mechanism, gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were applied as an antibacterial agent for real-time observations of their interactions with bacteria by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this work, a surface ligand of glutathione-conjugated (GSH)-AuNCs was prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. Optical and structural characterizations validated the successful preparation of GSH-AuNCs. Bacterial growth curves of Acetobacter aceti revealed that the antibacterial activity of GSH-AuNCs increased with the weight concentration. The antibacterial activity of GSH-AuNCs was confirmed by the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by GSH-AuNCs in A. aceti. Furthermore, real-time observations of interactions between GSH-AuNCs and A. aceti were made using in situ liquid cell TEM. Based on the results of real-time observations, GSH-AuNCs first attached onto the bacterial membranes of A. aceti by physical adsorption and then penetrated into A. aceti by internalization. Eventually, the production of intracellular ROS induced by GSH-AuNCs caused destruction of the bacterial membranes, which led to the death of A. aceti. After the bacterial membranes had been destroyed, A. aceti eventually died.
Martin Bienvenu Somda, Jacques Kaboré, Sheila Médina Karambiri, Emilie Dama, Der Dabiré, Charlie Franck Alfred Compaoré, Ernest Wendemanedgé Salou, Hamidou Ilboudo, Isidore Houaga, Fabrice Courtin, Adrien Marie Gaston Belem, Vincent Jamonneau, Zakaria Bengaly
In: Acta parasitologica, 2022.
PURPOSE: The boom in Burkina Faso’s artisanal gold mining since 2007 has attracted populations from Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea, which are the West African countries most affected by human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and therefore increases its risk of re-emergence. Our aim was to update the HAT data in Burkina Faso in the risk of the re-emergence context with the advent of artisanal gold mining. METHODS: The study was carried out in the southwestern Burkina Faso where entomological surveys were conducted using biconical traps in March 2017. Follow by an active medical survey in April 2017, which was targeted the gold panners in 7 villages closer to artisanal gold sites, using CATT, mini-anion exchange centrifugation technique, trypanolysis test (TL) and ELISA test to measure human/tsetse contacts. The buffy coat technique and the TL were also applied in pigs to check their reservoir role of human trypanosomes. RESULTS: Our results have shown no case of HAT among 958 individuals tested and all the 50 pigs were also negative, but the level of antibodies against tsetse saliva evidenced by ELISA revealed low human/tsetse contact. Moreover, gold panners practise agriculture and breeding in an infected tsetse area, which are increased the risk. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate that the risk of re-emergence is low. The passive surveillance system implemented in 2015 in southwestern Burkina Faso is needed to increase the sentinel sites to better cover this area by taking into account the gold mining. Finally, awareness-raising activities are needed among populations about HAT.
Paul Sondo, Marc Christian Tahita, Hamidou Ilboudo, Toussaint Rouamba, Karim Derra, Gauthier Tougri, Florence Ouédraogo, Béatrice Marie Adélaïde Konseibo, Eli Roamba, Sabina Dahlström Otienoburu, Bérenger Kaboré, Kalynn Kennon, Kadija Ouédraogo, Wend-Timbe-Noma Arlette Raïssa Zongo, Fadima Yaya Bocoum, Kasia Stepniewska, Mehul Dhorda, Philippe J. Guérin, Halidou Tinto
Boosting the impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) through simultaneous screening and treatment of household members of children receiving SMC in Burkina Faso: a protocol for a randomized open label trial. (Journal Article)
In: Archives of Public Health, vol. 80, iss. 1, pp. 41, 2022.
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health concern in sub-Sahara Africa. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with amodiaquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is one of the most important preventive interventions. Despite its implementation, the burden of malaria is still very high in children under five years old in Burkina Faso, suggesting that the expected impact of this promising strategy might not be attained. Development of innovative strategies to improve the efficacy of these existing malaria control measures is essential. In such context, we postulate that screening and treatment of malaria in household members of children receiving SMC could greatly improve the impact of SMC intervention and reduce malaria transmission in endemic settings. METHODS: This randomized superiority trial will be carried out in the Nanoro health district, Burkina Faso. The unit of randomisation will be the household and all eligible children from a household will be allocated to the same study group. Households with 3-59 months old children will be assigned to either (i) control group (SMC alone) or (ii) intervention (SMC+ screening of household members with standard Histidin Rich Protein Rapid Diagnostic Test (HRP2-RDT) and treatment if positive). The sample size will be 526 isolated households per arm, i.e., around 1052 children under SMC coverage and an expected 1315 household members. Included children will be followed-up for 24 months to fully cover two consecutive malaria transmission seasons and two SMC cycles. Children will be actively followed-up during the malaria transmission seasons while in the dry seasons the follow-up will be passive. CONCLUSION: The study will respond to a major public health concern by providing evidence of the efficacy of an innovative strategy to boost the impact of SMC intervention.
Estomih Mduma, Tinto Halidou, Berenger Kaboré, Thomas Walongo, Palpouguini Lompo, Justine Museveni, Joshua Gidabayda, Jean Gratz, Godfrey Guga, Caroline Kimathi, Jie Liu, Paschal Mdoe, Robert Moshiro, Max Petzold, Jan Singlovic, Martine Guillerm, Melba F. Gomes, Eric R. Houpt, Christine M. Halleux
In: PloS one, vol. 17, iss. 2, pp. e0264322, 2022.
BACKGROUND: Serious invasive infections in newborns are a major cause of death. Lack of data on etiological causes hampers progress towards reduction of mortality. This study aimed to identify pathogens responsible for such infections in young infants in sub-Saharan Africa and to describe their antibiotics resistance profile. METHODS: Between September 2016 and April 2018 we implemented an observational study in two rural sites in Burkina Faso and Tanzania enrolling young infants aged 0-59 days old with serious invasive infection. Blood samples underwent blood culture and molecular biology. RESULTS: In total 634 infants with clinical diagnosis of serious invasive infection were enrolled and 4.2% of the infants had a positive blood culture. The most frequent pathogens identified by blood culture were Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Escherichia coli. Gram-negative isolates were only partially susceptible to first line WHO recommended treatment for neonatal sepsis at community level. A total of 18.6% of the infants were PCR positive for at least one pathogen and Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most common bacteria detected. Among infants enrolled, 60/634 (9.5%) died. Positive blood culture but not positive PCR was associated with risk of death. For most deaths, no pathogen was identified either by blood culture or molecular testing, and hence a causal agent remained unclear. Mortality was associated with low body temperature, tachycardia, respiratory symptoms, convulsions, history of difficult feeding, movement only when stimulated or reduced level of consciousness, diarrhea and/or vomiting. CONCLUSION: While Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Escherichia coli were pathogens most frequently identified in infants with clinical suspicion of serious invasive infections, most cases remain without definite diagnosis, making more accurate diagnostic tools urgently needed. Antibiotics resistance to first line antibiotics is an increasing challenge even in rural Africa.
Liesbeth Martens, Bérenger Kaboré, Annelies Post, Christa E. Gaast-de Jongh, Jeroen D. Langereis, Halidou Tinto, Jan Jacobs, André J. Ven, Quirijn Mast, Marien I. Jonge
In: BMC infectious diseases, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 15, 2022.
(Tags: *Carrier State/epidemiology, *Staphylococcus aureus, Adult, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Child, Female, Haemophilus influenzae, Humans, Infant, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Male, Moraxella catarrhalis, Nasopharyngeal carriage, Nasopharynx, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae)| | | |
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal colonisation with clinically relevant bacterial pathogens is a risk factor for severe infections, such as pneumonia and bacteraemia. In this study, we investigated the determinants of nasopharyngeal carriage in febrile patients in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: From March 2016 to June 2017, we recruited 924 paediatric and adult patients presenting with fever, hypothermia or suspicion of severe infection to the Centre Medical avec Antenne Chirurgicale Saint Camille de Nanoro, Burkina Faso. We recorded a broad range of clinical data, collected nasopharyngeal swabs and tested them for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Using logistic regression, we investigated the determinants of carriage and aimed to find correlations with clinical outcome. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal colonisation with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was highly prevalent and strongly dependent on age and season. Females were less likely to be colonised with S. pneumoniae (OR 0.71
Martin Somda, Médina Karambiri, Jacques Kaboré, Emilie Dama, Compaoré Alfred, Ernest Salou, Hamidou Ilboudo, Idriss Gali-Gali, Sèsséya Soha, Zakaria Bengaly, Adrien Belem, Der Dabire
In: International Journal of Development Research, vol. 12, pp. 53422-53427, 2022.
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Une prospection médicale récente sur la trypanosomose humaine africaine (THA) dans des sites d’orpaillage au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso, a mis en évidence la présence de mouches tsé-tsé infectées et des populations venant de la Côte d’Ivoire et de la Guinée, les deux pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest les plus affectés par cette maladie. Cet état de fait, montre un risque de réémergence de cette maladie. L’objectif de cette étude était de recueillir les perceptions des populations vivant à proximité de ces sites d’orpaillage du Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso afin de proposer des stratégies pour minimiser ce risque de réémergence de la THA. Pour ce faire une enquête sur les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques (CAP) a été réalisée en entretien semi-structuré auprès des personnes ressources, suivie des enquêtes CAP individuelles ciblant les orpailleurs dans la zone d’étude. Les résultats ont montré que les 29 personnes ressources sont peu informées sur la THA. Ce résultat a été confirmé par les CAP individuelles auprès des 130 orpailleurs enquêtés qui sont peu informés sur la THA : 87,69% sur ses modes de transmission, 78,46% sur ses symptômes et 100% sur les stratégies appropriées de gestion. A l’issue de cette étude, des recommandations ont été faites.
Philip J. Rosenthal, Anders Björkman, Mehul Dhorda, Abdoulaye Djimde, Arjen M. Dondorp, Oumar Gaye, Philippe J. Guerin, Elizabeth Juma, Dominic P. Kwiatkowski, Laura Merson, Francine Ntoumi, Ric N. Price, Jaishree Raman, David S. Roos, Feiko Ter Kuile, Halidou Tinto, Sheena S. Tomko, Nicholas J. White, Karen I. Barnes
In: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, pp. 1568-70, 2022, ISSN: 1476-1645 0002-9637.
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