Ananyo Choudhury, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Tinashe Chikowore, Dhriti Sengupta, Palwende Romuald Boua, Nigel J. Crowther, Godfred Agongo, Gershim Asiki, F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Isaac Kisiangani, Eric Maimela, Matshane Masemola-Maphutha, Lisa K. Micklesfield, Engelbert A. Nonterah, Shane A. Norris, Hermann Sorgho, Halidou Tinto, Stephen Tollman, Sarah E. Graham, Cristen J. Willer, Scott Hazelhurst, Michèle Ramsay
In: Nature communications, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 2578, 2022.
Genetic associations for lipid traits have identified hundreds of variants with clear differences across European, Asian and African studies. Based on a sub-Saharan-African GWAS for lipid traits in the population cross-sectional AWI-Gen cohort (N = 10,603) we report a novel LDL-C association in the GATB region (P-value=1.56 × 10(-8)). Meta-analysis with four other African cohorts (N = 23,718) provides supporting evidence for the LDL-C association with the GATB/FHIP1A region and identifies a novel triglyceride association signal close to the FHIT gene (P-value =2.66 × 10(-8)). Our data enable fine-mapping of several well-known lipid-trait loci including LDLR, PMFBP1 and LPA. The transferability of signals detected in two large global studies (GLGC and PAGE) consistently improves with an increase in the size of the African replication cohort. Polygenic risk score analysis shows increased predictive accuracy for LDL-C levels with the narrowing of genetic distance between the discovery dataset and our cohort. Novel discovery is enhanced with the inclusion of African data.
Dídac Macià, Joseph J. Campo, Gemma Moncunill, Chenjerai Jairoce, Augusto J. Nhabomba, Maximilian Mpina, Hermann Sorgho, David Dosoo, Ousmane Traore, Kwadwo Asamoah Kusi, Nana Aba Williams, Amit Oberai, Arlo Randall, Hèctor Sanz, Clarissa Valim, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Halidou Tinto, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Simon Kariuki, Ben Gyan, Claudia Daubenberger, Benjamin Mordmüller, Paula Petrone, Carlota Dobaño
In: JCI insight, vol. 7, iss. 10, 2022, ISSN: 2379-3708.
(Tags: *Adaptive immunity, *Antigen, *Epidemiology, *Immunology, *Infectious disease, *Malaria, *Malaria Vaccines, *Malaria/prevention & control, Antibodies, Antigens, Child, Falciparum/prevention & control, Humans, Immunoglobulin G, Infant, Protozoan, Vaccination)| | |
The RTS,S/AS01E vaccine targets the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) parasite. Protein microarrays were used to measure levels of IgG against 1000 P. falciparum antigens in 2138 infants (age 6-12 weeks) and children (age 5-17 months) from 6 African sites of the phase III trial, sampled before and at 4 longitudinal visits after vaccination. One month postvaccination, IgG responses to 17% of all probed antigens showed differences between RTS,S/AS01E and comparator vaccination groups, whereas no prevaccination differences were found. A small subset of antigens presented IgG levels reaching 4- to 8-fold increases in the RTS,S/AS01E group, comparable in magnitude to anti-CSP IgG levels (~11-fold increase). They were strongly cross-correlated and correlated with anti-CSP levels, waning similarly over time and reincreasing with the booster dose. Such an intriguing phenomenon may be due to cross-reactivity of anti-CSP antibodies with these antigens. RTS,S/AS01E vaccinees with strong off-target IgG responses had an estimated lower clinical malaria incidence after adjusting for age group, site, and postvaccination anti-CSP levels. RTS,S/AS01E-induced IgG may bind strongly not only to CSP, but also to unrelated malaria antigens, and this seems to either confer, or at least be a marker of, increased protection from clinical malaria.
Silene Casari, Monica Di Paola, Elena Banci, Salou Diallo, Luca Scarallo, Sara Renzo, Agnese Gori, Sonia Renzi, Monica Paci, Quirijn Mast, Tal Pecht, Karim Derra, Berenger Kaboré, Halidou Tinto, Duccio Cavalieri, Paolo Lionetti
In: Nutrients, vol. 14, iss. 9, 2022, ISSN: 2072-6643.
(Tags: *Economic Status, *Urbanization, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Feeding Behavior, fiber intake, Humans, rural diet, Rural Population, sub-Saharan Africa, Urban Population, urbanization, Western diet)| | |
(1) Background: Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing the fastest urbanization worldwide. People in rural areas still have a traditional and rural lifestyle, whereas the Westernization of diet and lifestyle is already evident in urban areas. This study describes dietary habits of families in Burkina Faso living at different levels of urbanization. (2) Methods: Data on lifestyle, socio-economic conditions, health status and anthropometry were collected from 30 families living in rural villages, a small town and the capital city. A food frequency questionnaire and a 24 h recall diary were used to estimate dietary habits and macronutrients intake. (3) Results: The urban cohort showed a more diversified diet, with a higher intake of animal protein and, especially in children, a higher consumption of simple sugars. Fiber intake was significantly higher in the rural and semi-urbanized cohorts. As expected, overweight and obesity gradually increased with the level of urbanization. In semi-urbanized and urban families, we observed coexistence of under- and over-nutrition, whereas in rural families, a portion of children were wasted and stunted, and adults were underweight. (4) Conclusions: These three cohorts represent a model of the effect on diet of rural-to-urban migration. Rural diet and traditional habits are replaced by a Western-oriented diet when families move to urbanized areas. This dietary transition and increased socio-economic status in newly developing urban areas have a major impact on disease epidemiology, resembling the past evolution in Western countries.
Biébo Bihoun, Serge Henri Zango, Maminata Traoré-Coulibaly, Innocent Valea, Raffaella Ravinetto, Jean Pierre Van Geertruyden, Umberto D’Alessandro, Halidou Tinto, Annie Robert
In: BMC pregnancy and childbirth, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 248, 2022, ISSN: 1471-2393.
(Tags: *Malaria, *Malaria/epidemiology, Adult, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Falciparum/parasitology, Female, Gravidity, Humans, Malaria, placenta, Placenta/parasitology, Pregnancy, Risk Factors)| | |
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy can result in placental infection with fetal implications. This study aimed at assessing placental malaria (PM) prevalence and its associated factors in a cohort of pregnant women with peripheral malaria and their offspring. METHOD: The data were collected in the framework of a clinical trial on treatments for malaria in pregnant women . Placental malaria (PM) was diagnosed by histopathological detection of parasites and/or malaria pigment on placenta biopsies taken at delivery. Factors associated with PM were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Out of 745 biopsies examined, PM was diagnosed in 86.8 % of women. Acute, chronic and past PM were retrieved in 11 (1.5 %), 170 (22.8 %), and 466 (62.6 %) women, respectively. A modifying effect was observed in the association of gravidity or anemia at the study start with pooled PM (presence of parasites and/or malaria pigment). In women under 30, gravidity ≤ 2 was associated with an increased prevalence of pooled PM but in women aged 30 years or more, gravidity was no more associated with pooled PM (OR 6.81, 95 % CI 3.18 – 14.60; and OR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.10 – 2.76, respectively). Anemia was associated with pooled PM in women under 30 (OR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.03 – 3.72) but not in women aged 30 years or more (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.31 – 1.49). Similarly, the association of gravidity with past-chronic PM depended also on age. A higher prevalence of active PM was observed in women under 30 presenting with symptomatic malaria (OR 3.79, 95 % CI 1.55 – 9.27), while there was no significant increase in the prevalence of active PM (presence of parasites only) in women with symptomatic malaria when aged 30 years or more (OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.10 – 1.75). In women with chronic PM, the prevalence of low birth weight or prematurity was the highest (31.2 %) as compared with past PM or no PM. CONCLUSION: Despite the rapid diagnosis and efficacious treatment of peripheral infection, the prevalence of placental malaria remained high in women with P. falciparum peripheral infection in Nanoro, especially in younger women This underlines the importance of preventive measures in this specific group.
Moussa Lingani, Serge Henri Zango, Innocent Valéa, Georges Somé, Maïmouna Sanou, Sékou O. Samadoulougou, Serge Ouoba, Eli Rouamba, Annie Robert, Michèle Dramaix, Philippe Donnen, Halidou Tinto
In: BMC pregnancy and childbirth, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 228, 2022, ISSN: 1471-2393.
(Tags: *Antimalarials/therapeutic use, *Rural Health, Associated factors, Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso/epidemiology, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Infant, Low Birth Weight, Newborn, Pregnancy, Risk Factors, Rural area)| | |
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major factor of neonate mortality that particularly affects developing countries. However, the scarcity of data to support decision making to reduce LBW occurrence is a major obstacle in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LBW at the Yako health district in a rural area of Burkina Faso. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted at four peripheral health centers among mothers and their newly delivered babies. The mothers’ socio-demographic and obstetrical characteristics were collected by face-to-face interview or by review of antenatal care books. Maternal malaria was tested by standard microscopy and neonates’ birth weights were documented. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with LBW. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 600 neonates examined, the prevalence of low birth weight was 11.0%. Adjustment for socio-demographic characteristic, medical conditions, obstetrical history, malaria prevention measures by multivariate logistic regression found that being a primigravid mother (aOR = 1.8, [95% CI: 1.1-3.0]), the presence of malaria infection (aOR = 1.9, [95% CI: 1.1-3.5]), the uptake of less than three doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp-SP) (aOR = 2.2, [95% CI: 1.3-3.9]), the presence of maternal fever at the time of delivery (aOR = 2.8, [95% CI: 1.5-5.3]) and being a female neonate (aOR = 1.9, [95% CI: 1.1-3.3]) were independently associated with an increased risk of LBW occurrence. The number of antenatal visits performed by the mother during her pregnancy did not provide any direct protection for low birth weight. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of LBW remained high in the study area. Maternal malaria, fever and low uptake of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine doses were significantly associated with LBW and should be adequately addressed by public health interventions.
Tzu-Yang Chen, Tsung-Rong Kuo, Sibidou Yougbaré, Lu-Yin Lin, Cheng-Yu Xiao
In: Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 608, iss. Pt 1, pp. 493-503, 2022.
Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF67) derivatives are considered as promising active materials for energy storage owing to the possible formation of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite. Cobalt oxide has multiple redox states for generating redox reactions for charge storage, while N-doped graphite can provide high electrical conductivity for charge transfer. In this study, it is the first time to synthesize binder-free electrodes composed of cobalt oxide and N-doped graphite derived from ZIF67 on carbon cloth (CC) for supercapacitor (SC). Successive oxidation and carbonization along with additional coverage of ZIF67 derivatives are applied to synthesize ZIF67 derivatives composed of cobalt oxide, N-doped graphite and cobalt oxide/N-doped graphite composites with different layer compositions. The highest specific capacitance (C(F)) of 90.0F/g at 20 mV/s is obtained for the oxidized ZIF67/carbonized ZIF67/carbon cloth (O67/C67/CC) electrode, due to the large surface area and high electrical conductivity benefitted from preferable morphology and growing sequence of Co(3)O(4) and N-doped graphite. The symmetric SC composed of O67/C67/CC electrodes shows the maximum energy density of 2.53 Wh/kg at the power density of 50 W/kg. Cycling stability with C(F) retention of 70% and Coulombic efficiency of 65% after 6000 times repeatedly charge/discharge process is also obtained for this symmetric SC.
Chen-Yi Huang, Tsung-Rong Kuo, Sibidou Yougbaré, Lu-Yin Lin
In: Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 607, iss. Pt 2, pp. 1457-1465, 2022.
Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) is one of the promising cathode materials of lithium ion battery (LIB), but poor electrical conductivity restricts its electrochemical performance. Carbon coating can improve electrical conductivity of LFP without changing its intrinsic property. Uniform coating of carbon on LFP is significant to avoid charge congregation and unpreferable redox reactions. It is the first time to apply the commercial organic binder, Super P® (SP), as carbon source to achieve uniform coating on LFP as cathode material of LIB. The simple and economical mechanofusion method is firstly applied to coat different amounts of SP on LFP. The LIB with the cathode material of optimized SP-coated LFP shows the highest capacity of 165.6 mAh/g at 0.1C and 59.8 mAh/g at 10C, indicating its high capacity and excellent high-rate charge/discharge capability. SP is applied on other commercial LFP materials, M121 and M23, for carbon coating. Enhanced high-rate charge/discharge capabilities are also achieved for LIB with SP-coated M121 and M23 as cathode materials. This new material and technique for carbon coating is verified to be applicable on different LFP materials. This novel carbon coating method is expected to apply on other cathode materials of LIB with outstanding electrochemical performances.
Fiona B. Tamburini, Dylan Maghini, Ovokeraye H. Oduaran, Ryan Brewster, Michaella R. Hulley, Venesa Sahibdeen, Shane A. Norris, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn, Ryan G. Wagner, Alisha N. Wade, Floidy Wafawanaka, F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Rhian Twine, Zané Lombard, Scott Hazelhurst, Ami S. Bhatt
In: Nature communications, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 926, 2022.
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Human gut microbiome research focuses on populations living in high-income countries and to a lesser extent, non-urban agriculturalist and hunter-gatherer societies. The scarcity of research between these extremes limits our understanding of how the gut microbiota relates to health and disease in the majority of the world’s population. Here, we evaluate gut microbiome composition in transitioning South African populations using short- and long-read sequencing. We analyze stool from adult females living in rural Bushbuckridge (n = 118) or urban Soweto (n = 51) and find that these microbiomes are taxonomically intermediate between those of individuals living in high-income countries and traditional communities. We demonstrate that reference collections are incomplete for characterizing microbiomes of individuals living outside high-income countries, yielding artificially low beta diversity measurements, and generate complete genomes of undescribed taxa, including Treponema, Lentisphaerae, and Succinatimonas. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome of South Africans does not conform to a simple "western-nonwestern" axis and contains undescribed microbial diversity.
Issaka Sagara, Issaka Zongo, Matthew Cairns, Rakiswendé Serge Yerbanga, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Frédéric Nikièma, Amadou Tapily, Frédéric Sompougdou, Modibo Diarra, Charles Zoungrana, Djibrilla Issiaka, Alassane Haro, Koualy Sanogo, Abdoul Aziz Sienou, Mahamadou Kaya, Seydou Traore, Ismaila Thera, Kalifa Diarra, Amagana Dolo, Irene Kuepfer, Paul Snell, Paul Milligan, Christian Ockenhouse, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Halidou Tinto, Abdoulaye Djimde, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Alassane Dicko, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood
In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 75, iss. 4, pp. 613-622, 2022, ISSN: 1058-4838.
BACKGROUND A trial in African children showed that combining seasonal vaccination with the RTS,S/AS01E vaccine with seasonal malaria chemoprevention reduced the incidence of uncomplicated and severe malaria compared with either intervention given alone. Here, we report on the anti-circumsporozoite antibody response to seasonal RTS,S/AS01E vaccination in children in this trial. METHODS Sera from a randomly selected subset of children collected before and 1 month after 3 priming doses of RTS,S/AS01E and before and 1 month after 2 seasonal booster doses were tested for anti-circumsporozoite antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between post-vaccination antibody titer and incidence of malaria was explored. RESULTS A strong anti-circumsporozoite antibody response to 3 priming doses of RTS,S/AS01E was seen (geometric mean titer, 368.9 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/mL), but titers fell prior to the first booster dose. A strong antibody response to an annual, pre-malaria transmission season booster dose was observed, but this was lower than after the primary vaccination series and lower after the second than after the first booster dose (ratio of geometric mean rise, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], .57-.77). Children whose antibody response was in the upper tercile post-vaccination had a lower incidence of malaria during the following year than children in the lowest tercile (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, .28-.66). CONCLUSIONS Seasonal vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E induced a strong booster antibody response that was lower after the second than after the first booster dose. The diminished antibody response to the second booster dose was not associated with diminished efficacy. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NCT03143218.
Marc Christian Tahita, Paul Sondo, Berenger Kabore, Hamidou Ilboudo, Toussaint Rouamba, Hyacinthe Sanou, Kadija Ouédraogo, Adélaïde Compaoré, Palpouguini Lompo, Florence Ouedraogo, Seydou Sawadogo, Karim Derra, Yabré Edmond Sawadogo, Athanase M. Somé, Macaire Nana, Hermann Sorgho, Maminata Traore-Coulibaly, Quique Bassat, Halidou Tinto
Impact and operational feasibility of adding malaria infection screening using an ultrasensitive RDT for placental and fetal outcomes in an area of high IPTP-SP coverage in Burkina Faso: the ASSER MALARIA pilot study protocol (Journal Article)
In: Pilot and Feasibility Studies, vol. 8, iss. 1, pp. 221, 2022, ISSN: 2055-5784.
BACKGROUND Malaria infection during pregnancy (MIP) is not only deleterious to the woman, but it also puts her fetus at increased risk of adverse outcomes, such as preterm delivery, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. Additionally, all-cause mortality during the first year of life in babies born to women with malaria during pregnancy is also increased. Many interventions such as IPTp-SP and long-lasting insecticidal nets have proven to be efficient at reducing malaria in pregnancy burden but adherence to recommended policies remains poor. In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria in pregnancy is often asymptomatic and many malaria infections may be missed due to the inadequate performance of the current rapid diagnostic test to detect low-level parasitemias. Therefore, additional strategies such as intermittent screening with ultrasensitive rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with an effective artemisinin-based combination therapy in addition to IPTp-SP could reduce placental malaria, peripheral malaria infection at delivery, and low birth weight. METHODS This pilot 2-group randomized open trial with a nested qualitative social behavioral will be carried out in Nanoro district in which 340 pregnant women will be recruited. Pregnant women will be randomized into two groups and followed on a monthly basis until delivery. In the intervention group, monthly screening using ultrasensitive rapid diagnostic tests and treatment of those found to be infected with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine will be performed. In addition, a reminder will be sent to increase the uptake of IPTp-SP doses per woman. During scheduled and unscheduled visits, malaria infection, hemoglobin level, and other clinical outcomes will be assessed and compared by the group. The primary feasibility outcome will evaluate the study site’s capacity to enroll participants and the women’s perception and acceptability of the intervention. The primary clinical outcome will be the prevalence of placental malaria at delivery. DISCUSSION The present protocol aims to evaluate the feasibility on a large-scale and also to demonstrate the impact and the operational feasibility of additional screening with ultrasensitive rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with DHA-PQ on placental malaria, low birth weight, and peripheral malaria infection at delivery in a high-burden setting in Burkina Faso. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov , ID: NCT04147546 (14 October 2019).
Matthew Cairns, Amadou Barry, Issaka Zongo, Issaka Sagara, Serge R. Yerbanga, Modibo Diarra, Charles Zoungrana, Djibrilla Issiaka, Abdoul Aziz Sienou, Amadou Tapily, Koualy Sanogo, Mahamadou Kaya, Seydou Traore, Kalifa Diarra, Hama Yalcouye, Youssoufa Sidibe, Alassane Haro, Ismaila Thera, Paul Snell, Jane Grant, Halidou Tinto, Paul Milligan, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Alassane Dicko, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo
The duration of protection against clinical malaria provided by the combination of seasonal RTS,S/AS01E vaccination and seasonal malaria chemoprevention versus either intervention given alone (Journal Article)
In: BMC Medicine, vol. 20, iss. 1, pp. 352, 2022, ISSN: 1741-7015.
BACKGROUND A recent trial of 5920 children in Burkina Faso and Mali showed that the combination of seasonal vaccination with the RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine (primary series and two seasonal boosters) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (four monthly cycles per year) was markedly more effective than either intervention given alone in preventing clinical malaria, severe malaria, and deaths from malaria. METHODS In order to help optimise the timing of these two interventions, trial data were reanalysed to estimate the duration of protection against clinical malaria provided by RTS,S/AS01E when deployed seasonally, by comparing the group who received the combination of SMC and RTS,S/AS01E with the group who received SMC alone. The duration of protection from SMC was also estimated comparing the combined intervention group with the group who received RTS,S/AS01E alone. Three methods were used: Piecewise Cox regression, Flexible parametric survival models and Smoothed Schoenfeld residuals from Cox models, stratifying on the study area and using robust standard errors to control for within-child clustering of multiple episodes. RESULTS The overall protective efficacy from RTS,S/AS01E over 6 months was at least 60% following the primary series and the two seasonal booster doses and remained at a high level over the full malaria transmission season. Beyond 6 months, protective efficacy appeared to wane more rapidly, but the uncertainty around the estimates increases due to the lower number of cases during this period (coinciding with the onset of the dry season). Protection from SMC exceeded 90% in the first 2-3 weeks post-administration after several cycles, but was not 100%, even immediately post-administration. Efficacy begins to decline from approximately day 21 and then declines more sharply after day 28, indicating the importance of preserving the delivery interval for SMC cycles at a maximum of four weeks. CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of both interventions was highest immediately post-administration. Understanding differences between these interventions in their peak efficacy and how rapidly efficacy declines over time will help to optimise the scheduling of SMC, malaria vaccination and the combination in areas of seasonal transmission with differing epidemiology, and using different vaccine delivery systems. TRIAL REGISTRATION The RTS,S-SMC trial in which these data were collected was registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03143218.
Jeoffray Diendéré, Augustin Nawidimbasba Zeba, Sibraogo Kiemtoré, Olivier Ouahamin Sombié, Philippe Fayemendy, Pierre Jésus, Athanase Millogo, Aly Savadogo, Halidou Tinto, Jean-Claude Desport
In: Public Health Nutrition, vol. 25, iss. 8, pp. 2214-2224, 2022, ISSN: 1368-9800.
OBJECTIVE To explore the relationships between dental problems and underweight status among rural women in Burkina Faso by using nationally representative data. DESIGN This was a cross-sectional secondary study of primary data obtained by the 2013 WHO Stepwise Approach to Surveillance survey conducted in Burkina Faso. Descriptive and analytical analyses were performed using Student’s t test, ANOVA, the χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression. SETTING All thirteen Burkinabè regions were categorised using quartiles of urbanisation rates. PARTICIPANTS The participants were 1730 rural women aged 25-64 years. RESULTS The prevalence of underweight was 16·0 %, and 24·1 % of participants experienced dental problems during the 12-month period. The women with dental problems were more frequently underweight (19·9 % and 14·7 %; P < 0·05) and had a lower mean BMI (21·1 ± 3·2 and 21·6 ± 3·7 kg/m2, P < 0·01) than those without dental problems. More risk factors for underweight were observed in less urbanised regions among elderly individuals (> 49 years old) and smokeless tobacco users. Age > 49 years, professions with inconsistent income, a lack of education, smokeless tobacco use and low BMI were factors that were significantly associated with dental problems, while residency in a low-urbanisation area was a protective factor. CONCLUSION The prevalence of underweight in rural Burkinabè women is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa, and women with dental problems are more frequently affected than those without dental problems. Public health measures for the prevention of these disorders should specifically target women aged over 49 years and smokeless tobacco users.
Noemi-Nicole Piga, Palwende Romuald Boua, Chisom Soremekun, Nick Shrine, Kayesha Coley, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Martin D. Tobin, Michèle Ramsay, Segun Fatumo, Ananyo Choudhury, Chiara Batini
In: Scientific Reports, vol. 12, iss. 1, pp. 18828, 2022, ISSN: 2045-2322.
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<p> Smoking is a leading risk factor for many of the top ten causes of death worldwide. Of the 1.3 billion smokers globally, 80% live in low- and middle-income countries, where the number of deaths due to tobacco use is expected to double in the next decade according to the World Health Organization. Genetic studies have helped to identify biological pathways for smoking behaviours, but have mostly focussed on individuals of European ancestry or living in either North America or Europe. We performed a genome-wide association study of two smoking behaviour traits in 10,558 men of African ancestry living in five African countries and the UK. Eight independent variants were associated with either smoking initiation or cessation at <italic>P</italic> -value < 5 × 10 –6 , four being monomorphic or rare in European populations. Gene prioritisation strategy highlighted five genes, including <italic>SEMA6D,</italic> previously described as associated with several smoking behaviour traits. These results confirm the importance of analysing underrepresented populations in genetic epidemiology, and the urgent need for larger genomic studies to boost discovery power to better understand smoking behaviours, as well as many other traits. </p>
Vivi Maketa, Japhet Kabalu, Melissa Kabena, Flory Luzolo, Hypolite Muhindo-Mavoko, Henk D. F. H. Schallig, Kassoum Kayentao, Petra F. Mens, Pascal Lutumba, Halidou Tinto
Comparison of intermittent screening (using ultra-sensitive malaria rapid diagnostic test) and treatment (using a newly registered antimalarial pyronaridine-artesunate—PYRAMAX®) to standard intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the prevention of malaria in pregnant women living in endemic areas: ULTRAPYRAPREG (Journal Article)
In: Trials, vol. 23, iss. 1, pp. 963, 2022, ISSN: 1745-6215.
BACKGROUND Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is an important malaria control strategy in sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, it overcomes the risk of misdiagnosis due to low peripheral parasitemia during pregnancy by treating women with SP on predetermined schedules. However, over time, the spread of Plasmodium-resistant strains has threatened this strategy in many countries. As an alternative, the intermittent screening and treatment for pregnancy (ISTp) aims at a monthly screening of pregnant women, preferably by using very sensitive tests such as ultrasensitive rapid diagnostic tests (us-RDTs) and the treatment of positive cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) regardless of the presence of symptoms. Unlike IPTp-SP, ISTp prevents overuse of antimalarials limiting the drug pressure on parasites, an advantage which can be potentiated by using an ACT like pyronaridine-artesunate (Pyramax®) that is not yet used in pregnant women in the field. METHODS This study aims to compare the non-inferiority of ISTp using us-RDTs and Pyramax® versus IPTp-SP on malaria in pregnancy through a randomized clinical trial performed in Kisenso, Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a malaria perennial transmission area. DISCUSSION The results will be essential for the National Malaria Control Program to update the malaria prevention policy in pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04783051.
Mehreen S Datoo, Hamtandi Magloire Natama, Athanase Somé, Duncan Bellamy, Ousmane Traoré, Toussaint Rouamba, Marc Christian Tahita, N Félix André Ido, Prisca Yameogo, Daniel Valia, Aida Millogo, Florence Ouedraogo, Rachidatou Soma, Seydou Sawadogo, Faizatou Sorgho, Karim Derra, Eli Rouamba, Fernando Ramos-Lopez, Matthew Cairns, Samuel Provstgaard-Morys, Jeremy Aboagye, Alison Lawrie, Rachel Roberts, Innocent Valéa, Hermann Sorgho, Nicola Williams, Gregory Glenn, Louis Fries, Jenny Reimer, Katie J Ewer, Umesh Shaligram, Adrian V S Hill, Halidou Tinto
In: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 22, iss. 12, pp. 1728-1736, 2022, ISSN: 14733099.
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BACKGROUND Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We previously reported the efficacy of the R21/Matrix-M malaria vaccine, which reached the WHO-specified goal of 75% or greater efficacy over 12 months in the target population of African children. Here, we report the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy results at 12 months following administration of a booster vaccination. METHODS This double-blind phase 1/2b randomised controlled trial was done in children aged 5-17 months in Nanoro, Burkina Faso. Eligible children were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive three vaccinations of either 5 μg R21/25 μg Matrix-M, 5 μg R21/50 μg Matrix-M, or a control vaccine (the Rabivax-S rabies vaccine) before the malaria season, with a booster dose 12 months later. Children were eligible for inclusion if written informed consent could be provided by a parent or guardian. Exclusion criteria included any existing clinically significant comorbidity or receipt of other investigational products. A random allocation list was generated by an independent statistician by use of block randomisation with variable block sizes. A research assistant from the University of Oxford, independent of the trial team, prepared sealed envelopes using this list, which was then provided to the study pharmacists to assign participants. All vaccines were prepared by the study pharmacists by use of the same type of syringe, and the contents were covered with an opaque label. Vaccine safety, efficacy, and a potential correlate of efficacy with immunogenicity, measured as anti-NANP antibody titres, were evaluated over 1 year following the first booster vaccination. The population in which the efficacy analyses were done comprised all participants who received the primary series of vaccinations and a booster vaccination. Participants were excluded from the efficacy analysis if they withdrew from the trial within the first 2 weeks of receiving the booster vaccine. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03896724), and is continuing for a further 2 years to assess both the potential value of additional booster vaccine doses and longer-term safety. FINDINGS Between June 2, and July 2, 2020, 409 children returned to receive a booster vaccine. Each child received the same vaccination for the booster as they received in the primary series of vaccinations; 132 participants received 5 μg R21 adjuvanted with 25 μg Matrix-M, 137 received 5 μg R21 adjuvanted with 50 μg Matrix-M, and 140 received the control vaccine. R21/Matrix-M had a favourable safety profile and was well tolerated. Vaccine efficacy remained high in the high adjuvant dose (50 μg) group, similar to previous findings at 1 year after the primary series of vaccinations. Following the booster vaccination, 67 (51%) of 132 children who received R21/Matrix-M with low-dose adjuvant, 54 (39%) of 137 children who received R21/Matrix-M with high-dose adjuvant, and 121 (86%) of 140 children who received the rabies vaccine developed clinical malaria by 12 months. Vaccine efficacy was 71% (95% CI 60 to 78) in the low-dose adjuvant group and 80% (72 to 85) in the high-dose adjuvant group. In the high-dose adjuvant group, vaccine efficacy against multiple episodes of malaria was 78% (95% CI 71 to 83), and 2285 (95% CI 1911 to 2568) cases of malaria were averted per 1000 child-years at risk among vaccinated children in the second year of follow-up. Among these participants, at 28 days following their last R21/Matrix-M vaccination, titres of malaria-specific anti-NANP antibodies correlated positively with protection against malaria in both the first year of follow-up (Spearman’s ρ -0·32 [95% CI -0·45 to -0·19]; p=0·0001) and second year of follow-up (-0·20 [-0·34 to -0·06]; p=0·02). INTERPRETATION A booster dose of R21/Matrix-M at 1 year following the primary three-dose regimen maintained high efficacy against first and multiple episodes of clinical malaria. Furthermore, the booster vaccine induced antibody concentrations that correlated with vaccine efficacy. The trial is ongoing to assess long-term follow-up of these participants and the value of further booster vaccinations. FUNDING European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership 2 (EDCTP2), Wellcome Trust, and NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre. TRANSLATION For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
Hayley A Thompson, Alexandra B Hogan, Patrick G T Walker, Peter Winskill, Issaka Zongo, Issaka Sagara, Halidou Tinto, Jean-Bosco Ouedraogo, Alassane Dicko, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Matt Cairns, Azra C Ghani
In: The Lancet Global Health, vol. 10, iss. 12, pp. e1782-e1792, 2022, ISSN: 2214109X.
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BACKGROUND A 2021 clinical trial of seasonal RTS,S/AS01E (RTS,S) vaccination showed that vaccination was non-inferior to seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in preventing clinical malaria. The combination of these two interventions provided significant additional protection against clinical and severe malaria outcomes. Projections of the effect of this novel approach to RTS,S vaccination in seasonal transmission settings for extended timeframes and across a range of epidemiological settings are needed to inform policy recommendations. METHODS We used a mathematical, individual-based model of malaria transmission that was fitted to data on the relationship between entomological inoculation rate and parasite prevalence, clinical disease, severe disease, and deaths from multiple sites across Africa. The model was validated with results from a phase 3b trial assessing the effect of SV-RTS,S in Mali and Burkina Faso. We developed three intervention efficacy models with varying degrees and durations of protection for our population-level modelling analysis to assess the potential effect of an RTS,S vaccination schedule based on age (doses were delivered to children aged 6 months, 7·5 months, and 9 months for the first three doses, and at 27 months of age for the fourth dose) or season (children aged 5-17 months at the time of first vaccination received the first three doses in the 3 months preceding the transmission season, with any subsequent doses up to five doses delivered annually) in seasonal transmission settings both in the absence and presence of SMC with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine. This is modelled as a full therapeutic course delivered every month for four or five months of the peak in transmission season. Estimates of cases and deaths averted in a population of 100 000 children aged 0-5 years were calculated over a 15-year time period for a range of levels of malaria transmission intensity (Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence in children aged 2-10 years between 10% and 65%) and over two west Africa seasonality archetypes. FINDINGS Seasonally targeting RTS,S resulted in greater absolute reductions in malaria cases and deaths compared with an age-based strategy, averting an additional 14 000-47 000 cases per 100 000 children aged 5 years and younger over 15 years, dependent on seasonality and transmission intensity. We predicted that adding seasonally targeted RTS,S to SMC would reduce clinical incidence by up to an additional 42 000-67 000 cases per 100 000 children aged 5 years and younger over 15 years compared with SMC alone. Transmission season duration was a key determinant of intervention effect, with the advantage of adding RTS,S to SMC predicted to be smaller with shorter transmission seasons. INTERPRETATION RTS,S vaccination in seasonal settings could be a valuable additional tool to existing interventions, with seasonal delivery maximising the effect relative to an age-based approach. Decisions surrounding deployment strategies of RTS,S in such settings will need to consider the local and regional variations in seasonality, current rates of other interventions, and potential achievable RTS,S coverage. FUNDING UK Medical Research Council, UK Foreign Commonwealth & Development Office, The Wellcome Trust, and The Royal society.
Bieke Tack, Marie-France Phoba, Phe Thong, Palpouguini Lompo, Charlien Hupko, Stefanie Desmet, Delphine Martiny, Wesley Mattheus, Maria Pardos Gandara, Lisette Mbuyi-Kalonji, Laura Kuijpers, Benoit Prevost, Barbara Barbé, Olivier Vandenberg, Octavie Lunguya, Joaquim Ruiz, Jan Jacobs, Liselotte Hardy
In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 28, iss. 12, pp. 1615-1623, 2022, ISSN: 1198743X.
OBJECTIVE Azithromycin is an alternative to treat invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections. We determined its epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) and compared azithromycin susceptibility testing methods for iNTS. METHODS We used EUCAST ECOFFinder to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC; obtained by broth microdilution) ECOFF and corresponding disk zone diameters of 515 iNTS from blood cultures in Democratic Republic of Congo, Burkina Faso, Rwanda, and Cambodia. Transferable resistance mechanisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction. We compared azithromycin susceptibility testing by semi-automated broth microdilution (customized Sensititre panel; reference), agar dilution, gradient tests (bioMérieux, Liofilchem, HiMedia; read at 80% (MIC80%) and 100% inhibition (MIC100%)), and disk diffusion (Rosco, Oxoid, BD, Liofilchem) for 161 wild- and 198 non-wild-type iNTS. RESULTS Azithromycin MIC ECOFF was 16 mg/L corresponding to a 12 mm zone diameter; mphA was detected in 192/197 non-wild- and 0/47 wild-type iNTS. Categorical agreement was excellent (≥98%) for all methods. Essential agreement was very good for agar dilution (>90%) but moderate for gradient tests (MIC80%: 52% to 71% and MIC100%: 72% to 91%). Repeatability was good for all methods/brands. Interreader agreement was high for broth microdilution and agar dilution (all ≤1 twofold dilution difference) and disk diffusion (>96% ≤3 mm difference) but lower for gradient tests (MIC80% & MIC100%: 83% to 94% ≤1 twofold dilution difference). DISCUSSION Azithromycin ECOFF of iNTS was 16 mg/L, i.e. equal to Salmonella Typhi. Disk diffusion is an accurate, precise, and user-friendly alternative for agar dilution and broth microdilution. Reading gradient tests at 100% instead of 80% inhibition improved accuracy and precision.
Fassiatou Tairou, Saira Nawaz, Marc Christian Tahita, Samantha Herrera, Babacar Faye, Roger C. K. Tine
In: PLOS ONE, vol. 17, iss. 12, pp. e0274656, 2022, ISSN: 1932-6203.
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INTRODUCTION While malaria morbidity has sharply declined in several areas in Senegal, it remains an important problem in the southern part of the country, particularly among adolescents. Understanding adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes, prevention and care-seeking practices is important to inform more targeted interventions aimed at optimizing adolescents’ uptake of malaria prevention and control measures. This study assessed malaria-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among adolescents living in a highly persistent transmission area in Senegal. METHODS A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 adolescents living in the Saraya health district. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select households. An electronic questionnaire developed on Open Data Kit (ODK), was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, household assets, adolescents’ knowledge of malaria, as well as their attitudes with regards to malaria prevention, and care-seeking behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess factors associated with adolescents’ KAP towards malaria. RESULTS Nearly, one-third of the participants had good knowledge of malaria (34.4%) and good practice in regards to malaria preventive measures (32.8%) while 59.0% had a positive attitude and 73.8% had good care-seeking behavior regarding malaria. Multivariate analysis revealed that a primary (aOR = 5.43
Opeyemi Soremekun, Eric A. W. Slob, Stephen Burgess, Palwende Romuald Boua, Segun Fatumo, Dipender Gill
In: Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine, vol. 15, iss. 6, pp. e003910, 2022, ISSN: 2574-8300.
Massa Achille Bonko, Marc Christian Tahita, Francois Kiemde, Palpouguini Lompo, Petra F. Mens, Halidou Tinto, Henk. D. F. H. Schallig
Diagnostic Performance of Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein-2 Antigen-Specific Rapid Diagnostic Test in Children at the Peripheral Health Care Level in Nanoro (Burkina Faso) (Journal Article)
In: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol. 7, iss. 12, pp. 440, 2022, ISSN: 2414-6366.
<p>(1) Background: Malaria control has strongly benefited from the implementation of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). The malaria RDTs used in Burkina Faso, as per the recommendation of the National Malaria Control Program, are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) specific to Plasmodium falciparum, which is the principal plasmodial species causing malaria in Burkina Faso. However, there is increasing concern about the diagnostic performance of these RDTs in field situations, and so constant monitoring of their accuracy is warranted. (2) Methods: A prospective study was performed in the health district of Nanoro, where 391 febrile children under 5 years with an axillary temperature ≥37.5 °C presenting at participating health facilities were subjected to testing for malaria. The HRP2-based RDT and expert microscopy were used to determine the diagnostic performance of the former. Retrospectively, the correctness of the antimalaria prescriptions was reviewed. (3) Results: Taking expert malaria microscopy as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the employed RDT was 98.5% and the specificity 40.5%, with a moderate agreement between the RDT testing and microscopy. In total, 21.7% of cases received an inappropriate antimalarial treatment based on a retrospective assessment with expert microscopy results. (4) Conclusion: Malaria remains one of the principal causes of febrile illness in Burkina Faso. Testing with HRP2-based RDTs is inaccurate, in particular, due to the low specificity, which results in an over-prescription of antimalarials, with emerging antimalarial drug resistance as an important risk and many children not being treated for potential other causes of fever.</p>
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